To compare hematologic results for juvenile versus adult dogs from shelters that outwardly appeared healthy and were presented for ovariohysterectomy or castration.
138 dogs from 13 regional shelters.
Each dog underwent a physical examination (including use of a flea comb), age estimation by dental eruption characteristics, PCV, CBC, and tests for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies. Additional diagnostic tests were performed as needed. Dogs were grouped by age as < 3, ≥ 3 to ≤ 6, or > 6 months of age, with dogs ≤ 6 months of age considered juveniles and dogs > 6 months of age considered adults. Hematologic results were compared across groups.
There were 138 dogs, of which 56 were juveniles (34 dogs < 3 months old; 22 dogs ≥ 3 to ≤ 6 months old) and 82 were adults. Juvenile (vs adult) dogs had lower mean calculated Hct and mean PCV whether dogs with infectious agents or parasites were included or excluded. The mean PCV and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were lower and the reticulocyte count higher for juvenile dogs < 3 months old (35.8%, 33.1 g/dL, and 135,000 reticulocytes/μL) versus adults (44.9%, 34.7 g/dL, and 68,500 reticulocytes/ μL). Most (98.6%) dogs underwent surgery as scheduled; 2 dogs had surgery postponed because of thrombocytopenia or parvovirus infection.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Our findings indicated that outwardly healthy-appearing juvenile shelter dogs often have results for PCV and calculated Hct that are lower than those for adult shelter dogs and adult dog reference intervals but rarely require postponement of ovariohysterectomy or castration.
OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis in a large sample of dogs, compare outcomes achieved with fluconazole versus itraconazole, and identify variables available at the time of diagnosis with prognostic value.
DESIGN Retrospective case series with nested cohort study.
ANIMALS 79 dogs with confirmed histoplasmosis evaluated at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 1999 through 2015.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data extracted regarding clinical signs at evaluation, physical examination findings, clinical laboratory values, other diagnostic test results, treatments, and outcomes. Data were compared between antifungal agents used (fluconazole or itraconazole) and between other variables.
RESULTS Various breeds were represented. Working and herding breeds had mostly disseminated histoplasmosis, and toy breeds had mostly the gastrointestinal form. The diagnosis was often achieved with noninvasive techniques, such as cytologic evaluation of rectal scrape samples (n = 24) or blood films (15). Clinical remission was achieved in 16 of 25 (64%) dogs receiving fluconazole and 17 of 24 (71%) dogs receiving itraconazole. No differences were identified between antifungal agents in survival, clinical remission, or disease relapse rates. Identified negative prognostic factors included Great Pyrenees breed, dyspnea, need for oxygen supplementation, icterus, palpable abdominal organomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and hyperbilirubinemia, whereas diarrhea was a positive prognostic factor.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that histoplasmosis should be considered in a sick dog of any breed in an endemic area. Clinical signs may be nonspecific. Diagnosis may often be possible with noninvasive and inexpensive tests. Either fluconazole or itraconazole may be an effective treatment option.
To determine whether shelter dogs presenting for elective ovariohysterectomy or castration have leukocytosis, whether leukocytes are associated with age and infection, and whether leukocytosis precludes progression to surgery.
138 dogs (from 13 regional shelters) presented for ovariohysterectomy or castration between October 7 and December 6, 2019.
For this prospective study, each dog underwent presurgical physical examination, CBC, and tests for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies, with additional tests performed as needed. Dogs were aged by dentition as juvenile (< 3 or ≥ 3 to ≤ 6 months) or adult (> 6 months). Leukogram results were compared across age groups with recognized infections and parasitism and with dogs’ progression to surgery.
There were 34 dogs < 3 months old, 22 dogs ≥ 3 to ≤ 6 months old, and 82 > 6 months old. Sixty-three of 138 (45.6%) dogs had leukocytosis (median, 16,500 cells/µL; range, 13,700 to 28,300 cells/µL). Dogs < 3 months of age had higher median leukocyte and lymphocyte counts (14,550 cells/µL and 3,700 cells/µL, respectively) than dogs > 6 months of age (12,500 cells/µL and 2,400 cells/µL, respectively). Only 1 dog had a stress leukogram. Forty-seven dogs had recognized infection, but there was no association with leukocytosis. Surgery proceeded successfully for all dogs with leukocytosis.
Mild to moderate leukocytosis is common before elective surgery in shelter dogs, but surgery can proceed safely. A CBC should be reserved for ill-appearing dogs rather than as a screening test, and age-specific reference intervals should be considered.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination on 4 surfaces of 4 types of standard equipment in small animal veterinary hospitals.
Sample—10 small animal veterinary hospitals.
Procedures—Each hospital was visited 3 times at 4-month intervals; at each visit, a cage door, stethoscope, rectal thermometer, and mouth gag were swabbed. Swab samples were each plated onto media for culture of enterococci and organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Enterococci were identified via a species-specific PCR assay and sodA gene sequencing; species of Enterobacteriaceae were identified with a biochemical test kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed via the disk diffusion method. Enterococci were screened for virulence traits and genotyped to assess clonality.
Results—Among the 10 hospitals, enterococci were isolated from cage doors in 7, from stethoscopes in 7, from thermometers in 6, and from mouth gags in 1; contamination with species of Enterobacteriaceae was rare. Enterococci were mainly represented by Enterococcus faecium (35.4%), Enterococcus faecalis (33.2%), and Enterococcus hirae (28.3%). Antimicrobial resistance was common in E faecium, whereas virulence traits were present in 99% of E faecalis isolates but not in E faecium isolates. Clonal multidrug-resistant E faecium was isolated from several surfaces at 1 hospital over multiple visits, whereas sporadic nonclonal contamination was detected in other hospitals.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contamination of surfaces in small animal veterinary hospitals with multidrug-resistant enterococci is a potential concern for pets and humans contacting these surfaces. Implementing precautions to minimize enterococcal contamination on these surfaces is recommended.
To assess the pharmacokinetics and opioid effects of methadone after administration of multiple doses by means of 2 dosing regimens of methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone.
12 healthy Beagles.
Dogs were randomly allocated (6 dogs/group) to receive 1 of 2 oral dosing regimens of methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone. Treatment 1 doses were administered at 0 (methadone-to-fluconazole-to-naltrexone ratio of 1:5:0.25 mg/kg), 14 (1:5:0.25), 24 (0.5:2.5:0.125), and 38 (0.5:2.5:0.125) hours. Treatment 2 doses were administered at 0 (1:5:0.25), 4 (0.5:2.5:0.125), 10 (0.5:2.5:0.125), and 24 (0.5:2.5:0.125) hours. Blood samples, rectal temperatures, and von Frey antinociceptive measurements were obtained at designated times.
Compared with baseline, temperatures significantly decreased for treatment 1 group dogs at 2 to ≥ 4 hours and from 16 to ≥ 50 hours (12 hours after last dose) and for treatment 2 group dogs at 2 to ≥ 36 hours (12 hours after last dose), when trough methadone concentrations were ≥ 21.3 ng/mL. Antinociception occurred after the first dose but was not maintained throughout the study. Lesions were noted in some dogs at the application site of the von Frey device. Naltrexone and β-naltrexol were sporadically detected in plasma, and naltrexone glucuronide was consistently detected.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Opioid effects were noted after oral administration of the first dose, and data suggested that administering a second dose 6 hours later and every 12 hours thereafter was necessary to maintain opioid effects. Antinociception may have been lost because dogs became averse or hyperalgesic to the von Frey device, such that the antinociception model used here may not be robust for repeated measurements in dogs.
To evaluate and compare regulation of diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs with cataracts and well-controlled DM that received an ophthalmic preparation of prednisolone acetate versus diclofenac sodium.
22 client-owned dogs with cataracts and well-controlled DM.
A prospective, randomized, double-masked, experimental study was conducted. On days 0 and 32, serum fructosamine concentrations (SFCs), clinical scores, and body weights were determined. Dogs were assigned to receive a topically administered ophthalmic preparation of either prednisolone acetate 1% or diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye 4 times daily for 28 days. Data analysis was conducted with generalized linear mixed models.
Findings indicated no meaningful differences in SFCs, clinical scores, or body weights between the treatment groups on days 0 or 32. Clinical score on day 0 was positively associated with SFC, as indicated by the corresponding rate of change such that each 1 -unit increase in clinical score was associated with an approximately 45.6 ± 9.4 μmol/L increase in SFC. In addition, the least squares mean ± SEM SFC was higher in spayed females (539.20 ± 19.23 μmol/L; n = 12) than in castrated males (458.83 ± 23.70 μmol/L; 8) but did not substantially differ between sexually intact males (446.27 ± 49.72 μmol/L; 2) and spayed females or castrated males regardless of the treatment group assigned.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings indicated no evidence for any differential effect on DM regulation (assessed on the basis of SFCs, clinical scores, and body weights) in dogs treated topically with an ophthalmic preparation of prednisolone versus an ophthalmic preparation of diclofenac. Additional research investigating plasma concentrations of topically applied ophthalmic glucocorticoid medications is warranted. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:1129-1135)
To assess the pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of injectable methadone with the pharmacokinetic enhancer fluconazole (methadone-fluconazole), compared with the standard formulation of injectable methadone, in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. We hypothesized that 2 doses of methadone-fluconazole would provide 24 hours of postoperative analgesia.
3 purpose-bred dogs (pharmacokinetic preliminary study) and 42 female dogs from local shelters (clinical trial) were included.
Pharmacokinetics were preliminarily determined. Clinical trial client-owned dogs were blocked by body weight into treatment groups: standard methadone group (methadone standard formulation, 0.5 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h; n = 20) or methadone-fluconazole group (0.5 mg/kg methadone with 2.5 mg/kg fluconazole, SC, repeated once at 6 h; n = 22). All dogs also received acepromazine, propofol, and isoflurane. Surgeries were performed by experienced surgeons, and dogs were monitored perioperatively using the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale–Short Form (CMPS-SF) and sedation scales. Evaluators were masked to treatment.
Findings from pharmacokinetic preliminary studies supported that 2 doses of methadone-fluconazole provide 24 hours of drug exposure. The clinical trial had no significant differences in treatment failures or postoperative CMPS-SF scores between treatments. One dog (methadone-fluconazole group) had CMPS-SF > 6 and received rescue analgesia. All dogs had moderate sedation or less by 1 hour (methadone-fluconazole group) or 4 hours (standard methadone group) postoperatively. Sedation was completely resolved in all dogs the day after surgery.
Methadone-fluconazole with twice-daily administration was well tolerated and provided effective postoperative analgesia for dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Clinical compliance and postoperative pain control may improve with an effective twice-daily formulation.