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  • Author or Editor: Kate L. Hepworth-Warren x
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Objective—To determine clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results associated with septic arthritis in foals ≤ 180 days old.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—83 foals with septic arthritis.

Procedures—Medical records at 2 teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2013 were searched to identify those for foals ≤ 180 days old with confirmed infection of ≥ 1 synovial structure. Data extracted from the records included signalment, clinicopathologic information, bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results, and outcome. Data were analyzed for all foals as a single population and for foals stratified into 3 age groups (≤ 7 days, 8 to 30 days, and 31 to 180 days).

Results—Mean ± SD age of all foals was 18.2 ± 25 days (range, 0 to 180 days). The median number of joints affected per foal was 2 (range, 1 to 10 joints). Forty-seven of 83 (56.6%) foals survived to discharge from the hospital. Seventy antemortem synovial fluid samples underwent bacteriologic culture, of which 60 (85.7%) yielded growth. Of the 72 bacterial isolates identified, 45 (62.5%) were gram negative and 27 (375%) were gram positive. Survival rate was positively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentration and negatively associated with number of affected joints.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the frequency with which certain bacterial agents were isolated from septic joints, which may be beneficial for the empirical treatment of septic arthritis in foals. Also, the positive association between survival rate and plasma fibrinogen concentration may have prognostic value in a clinical setting.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To assess multiple central venous and arterial blood variables that alone or in conjunction with one another reflect global oxygenation status in healthy neonatal foals.

ANIMALS 11 healthy neonatal foals.

PROCEDURES Central venous and arterial blood samples were collected from healthy neonatal foals at 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after birth. Variables measured from central venous and arterial blood samples included oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen, lactate concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and pH. Calculated variables included venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide gap, estimated oxygen extraction ratio, ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fraction of inspired oxygen, bicarbonate concentration, base excess, and blood oxygen content.

RESULTS Significant differences between arterial and central venous blood obtained from neonatal foals were detected for several variables, particularly partial pressure of oxygen, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and oxygen content. In addition, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in central venous blood samples was significantly higher than the value for corresponding arterial blood samples. Several temporal differences were detected for other variables.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study provided information about several variables that reflect global oxygenation in healthy neonatal foals. Values for these variables in healthy foals can allow for comparison with values for critically ill foals in future studies. Comparison of these variables between healthy and ill foals may aid in treatment decisions and prognosis of clinical outcome for critically ill foals.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare thoracic ultrasonographic findings in healthy horses before and after general anesthesia for elective MRI utilizing a recently developed ultrasonographic scoring system to aid clinicians in the early identification of pneumonia following anesthesia.


13 adult horses > 3 years of age.


Prior to anesthesia, horses underwent a thorough physical examination, CBC, thoracic radiography, and thoracic ultrasonography. Horses were then anesthetized for elective MRI, and thoracic ultrasonography was repeated within 3 hours after recovery. Thoracic ultrasonographic findings were scored utilizing a recently developed scoring system, and scores were compared before and after anesthesia.


There was no significant difference identified in total thoracic ultrasonography score before and after anesthesia, and there was no correlation between thoracic ultrasonography score following anesthesia and the body weight of the horse, the time recumbent, and the dependent side.


In healthy horses undergoing anesthesia for elective imaging, there was no significant change in thoracic ultrasonographic findings 3 hours after recovery from anesthesia. These data can aid clinicians in determining the clinical significance of ultrasonographic changes in the lung in the immediate postanesthetic period.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association