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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Three doses of an α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, atipamezole, were administered to reverse xylazine-induced sedation, bradycardia, and ruminal atony in calves. Once a week for 4 weeks, each of 6 calves was administered iv 1 treatment of: 0.3 mg of xylazine/kg of body weight, followed in 10 minutes by 1 ml of 0.9% NaCl; 0.3 mg of xylazine/kg, followed in 10 minutes by 3 μg of atipamezole/kg; 0.3 mg of xylazine/kg, followed in 10 minutes by 10 μg of atipamezole/kg; or 0.3 mg of xylazine/kg, followed in 10 minutes by 30 μg of atipamezole/kg. The order of the 4 treatments in each calf was selected at random. Xylazine alone caused lateral recumbency for 33.6 ±7.1 minutes (mean ± sem-). Atipamezole administered at dosages of 3, 10, and 30 μg/kg shortened xylazine-induced lateral recumbency to 20.5 ± 3.0, 10.2 ± 0.2, and 9.3 ± 0.5 minutes, respectively. Calves given xylazine alone stood at > 60 minutes after the onset of recumbency. Atipamezole given at 3, 10, and 30 μg/kg shortened the time from onset of lateral recumbency to standing to 40.2 ± 6.9, 12.8 ± 1.1, and 10.0 ± 0.7 minutes, respectively. Drowsiness was found in calves given the lowest dosage of atipamezole (3 μg/kg) after the calves stood.

Atipamezole given at dosages of 10 and 30 μg/kg reversed xylazine-induced ruminal atony in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, 30 μg of atipamezole/kg reversed xylazine-induced bradycardia, but the lower dosages of this antagonist did not. Results indicated that 30 μg of atipamezole/kg should be a useful antidote for xylazine overdose in cattle.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors for development of sequestra in cattle and identify factors associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—110 cattle.

Procedure—Medical records of cattle treated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America were reviewed. To determine risk factors for osseous sequestration, breed, age, and sex of cattle with osseous sequestration were compared with breed, age, and sex of all other cattle admitted during the study period.

Results—110 cattle were included in the study. Three had 2 sequestra; thus, 113 lesions were identified. Most sequestra were associated with the bones of the extremities, most commonly the third metacarpal or third metatarsal bone. Ninety-two animals were treated surgically (ie, sequestrectomy), 7 were treated medically, 3 were initially treated medically and were then treated surgically, and 8 were not treated. Follow-up information was available for 65 animals treated surgically and 6 animals treated medically. Fifty-one (78%) animals treated surgically and 5 animals treated medically had a successful outcome. Cattle that were 6 months to 2 years old had a significantly increased risk of developing a sequestrum, compared with cattle < 6 months old. Cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of local anesthesia were significantly more likely to undergo 2 or more surgical procedures than were cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of general anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that sequestrectomy will result in a successful outcome for most cattle with osseous sequestration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:376–383)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association