Objective—To assess platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), metabolic characteristics, and platelet function in a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)–stabilized canine frozen platelet concentrate (PC).
Sample Population—11 units of a commercial frozen PC in 6% DMSO and fresh plateletrich plasma from 6 healthy control dogs.
Procedures—PCs were thawed, and the following data were collected: thaw time, platelet count, MPV, pH, PCO2, and PO2 and HCO3−, glucose, and lactate content. Phosphatidylserine translocation was determined by use of flow cytometry. Fresh platelet-rich plasma from healthy dogs served as a source of control platelets for flow cytometric analysis.
Results—At thaw, the platelet count in the frozen PC ranged from 243,000 to 742,000 platelets/μL. Median platelet count of paired samples was 680,000 platelets/μL and decreased significantly to 509,000 platelets/μL at 2 hours after thaw. Median MPV at thaw was 11.15 femtoliters and was stable after 2 hours. Compared with fresh platelets, frozen PC had increased amounts of phosphatidylserine in the outer leaflet of the platelet membrane in the resting (ie, not treated with thrombin) state (19% vs 99%, respectively) and alterations in cellular morphology, all of which were consistent with platelet activation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this in vitro study indicated that there was a decrease in platelet quantity and function as well as an increase in platelet activation during the freeze-and-thaw process in DMSO-stabilized canine frozen PC. In vivo effects on PC remain to be determined.
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of chyloabdomen diagnosis in cats and dogs and characterize and compare between species the corresponding clinical signs, clinicopathologic test results, and outcomes.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 36 cats and 17 dogs in which chyloabdomen was diagnosed at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1984 and 2014.
PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed, and data retrieved included patient signalment; clinical signs at initial evaluation; results of physical examination, diagnostic tests, and imaging studies; and outcomes. Survival analyses, descriptive statistics, and comparisons between species were completed.
RESULTS The incidence of chyloabdomen at the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period was 2.0 cases/100,000 admissions for cats and 2.8 cases/100,000 admissions for dogs. The mean age at diagnosis of chyloabdomen in cats was 11.3 years, compared with 6.9 years in dogs. The most common clinical signs in dogs and cats combined were lethargy (39/51 [76%]) and anorexia (37/51 [73%]), but fewer (23/53 [43%]) had abdominal distention. Chylothorax was a common comorbidity (25/53 [47%]), with malignant neoplasia being the most common underlying diagnosis (24/53 [45%]). Survival analyses included 44 patients; median survival time from diagnosis of chyloabdomen was 31 days overall, 8 days for patients with malignant neoplasia, and 73 days for patients without neoplasia.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE There were multiple causes of chyloabdomen in dogs and cats of the study, and outcome depended on underlying cause. Because of this and the rarity of chyloabdomen, a multicenter prospective study of disease progression, treatment response, and clinical outcome for dogs and cats with chyloabdomen is needed.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of 2 hydroxyethyl starch (HES) preparations (ie, HES solution with a molecular weight of 600 kd and a degree of substitution of 0.7 [HES 600/0.7] and a calcium-containing polyionic HES solution with a molecular weight of 670 kd and a degree of substitution of 0.75 [HES 670/0.75]) on canine platelet function.
Sample Population—Blood samples from 10 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—Dilution of citrated whole blood was performed with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, HES 600/0.7, and HES 670/0.75 at ratios of 1:9 (ie, 1 part saline solution or colloid to 9 parts whole blood) and 1:3. Measurements of time to platelet plug formation in a capillary tube (ie, closure time) were made by use of a bench-top platelet function analyzer with collagen and ADP platelet agonists.
Results—Mean baseline closure time was 68.0 ± 15.3 seconds. A 1:3 dilution of whole blood with saline solution, HES 600/0.7, and HES 670/0.75 resulted in mean closure times of 85.8 ± 15.7 seconds, 100.6 ± 18.6 seconds, and 101.6 ± 16.2 seconds, respectively. Closure time following 1:3 dilution of whole blood with saline solution was significantly different from baseline and from 1:9 dilution with saline solution. Closure time following 1:3 dilution of whole blood with HES 670/0.75 was significantly different from baseline, 1:3 and 1:9 dilutions with saline solution, and 1:9 dilutions with HES 600/0.7 or HES 670/0.75.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Saline solution, HES 600/0.7, and HES 670/0.75 affect canine platelet function by prolonging closure times; HES solutions prolonged closure time to a greater extent than saline solution.
Objective—To evaluate clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic findings in dogs with aspiration pneumonia.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—88 dogs with aspiration pneumonia.
Procedures—History, physical examination findings, and clinicopathologic data were obtained from medical records and analyzed for all 88 dogs. Thoracic radiographic findings for all dogs were reviewed to determine the type and location of pulmonary infiltrates.
Results—Aspiration pneumonia was evident at admission to the hospital in 65 (74%) dogs and developed during hospitalization in 23 (26%) dogs. Less than half of these affected dogs had high values for rectal temperature, heart rate, or respiratory rate; however, most (68%) affected dogs had increased, decreased, or adventitious lung sounds. Neutrophilia with a left shift was a common finding. Hypoalbuminemia was detected in 31 of 58 (53%) dogs. Hypoxemia and a high alveolar-arterial gradient in partial pressure of oxygen were detected in 22 of 28 (79%) dogs and 27 of 28 (96%) dogs, respectively. Among the 88 dogs, thoracic radiography revealed a predominantly alveolar infiltrate in 65 (74%) dogs and an interstitial pattern in 23 (26%) dogs; a single lung lobe was affected in 46 (52%) dogs, most commonly the right middle lung lobe (21/46 [46%] dogs).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, aspiration pneumonia was often associated with abnormalities in pulmonary auscultation in the absence of objective changes in physical examination findings. However, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoxemia were frequently detected, and radiographic evidence of infiltrates in the right middle lung lobe was common.
Objective—To evaluate the number and types of underlying disorders detected in dogs with aspiration pneumonia and determine the survival rate among affected dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—88 dogs with aspiration pneumonia.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify disease processes that could result in aspiration pneumonia. To assess outcome (ie, survival to discharge from the hospital or nonsurvival), dogs were grouped by the type and number of underlying disease processes. Duration of hospitalization and radiographic severity of disease were evaluated with regard to case outcome.
Results—As the cause of aspiration pneumonia, a single underlying disorder was identified in 60 of the 88 dogs; 2 or more diseases were identified in the remaining dogs. Esophageal disease (n = 35), vomiting (34), neurologic disorders (24), laryngeal disease (16), and postanesthetic aspiration (12) were identified most commonly. Overall, 68 dogs survived to discharge from the hospital (survival rate, 77%). Survival rates were comparable among dogs regardless of the underlying cause of aspiration pneumonia. Radiographic severity of disease and duration of hospitalization did not influence survival.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among these study dogs, aspiration pneumonia was associated with a high survival rate. The presence of more than 1 underlying disease associated with aspiration pneumonia did not adversely impact survival rate. Interestingly, radiographic severity of disease and duration of hospitalization were not associated with overall survival rate.
Objective—To assess the clinical course of disease and risk factors associated with outcome in dogs with tetanus.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—38 dogs with tetanus.
Procedures—Data were collected from medical records of dogs with tetanus, including signalment; wound characteristics; initial clinical signs; severity of worst clinical signs; time to wound management, antimicrobial treatment, and antitoxin administration; and 28-day survival rate. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate relationships between the potentially predictive variables and disease progression and outcome.
Results—The 28-day survival rate was 77% (among 35 uncensored dogs). The most common initial clinical signs in affected dogs were ocular (n = 18) and facial (11) abnormalities. Nineteen dogs progressed to recumbency with severe muscle spasms, and 14 dogs had high or low heart rate or blood pressure values. Eight dogs died or were euthanized because of complications of tetanus. There was a significant association between younger age and development of more severe clinical signs. Furthermore, a significant inverse relationship between development of severe clinical signs and survival was identified. There was no as-sociation between earlier initiation of wound management, antimicrobial administration, or antitoxin administration and either progression of signs or 28-day survival rate. Wound type was not associated with 28-day survival rate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that younger dogs with tetanus may be more likely to develop severe clinical signs. The prognosis for survival in dogs with tetanus is good if abnormalities in heart rate or blood pressure values do not develop.
Case Description—A 9-year-old dog was evaluated for traumatic cervical myelopathy after a surgical attempt to realign and stabilize the C2 and C3 vertebrae.
Clinical Findings—The dog could not ventilate spontaneously and was tetraplegic; positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) was maintained. Myelography and computed tomography revealed spinal cord compression with subluxation of the C2 and C3 vertebrae and extrusion of the C2-3 intervertebral disk.
Treatment and Outcome—Surgically, the protruding disk material was removed and the vertebrae were realigned with screws and wire. For PPV, assist control ventilation in volume control mode and then in pressure control mode was used in the first 6 days; this was followed by synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation until 33 days after the injury; then only continuous positive airway pressure was provided until the dog could breathe unassisted, 37 days after the injury. Physical therapy that included passive range of motion exercises, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and functional weight-bearing positions was administered until the dog was discharged 46 days after injury; the dog was severely ataxic and tetraparetic but could walk. Therapy was continued at home, and 1 year later, the dog could run and had moderate ataxia and tetraparesis.
Clinical Relevance—Hypoventilation with tetraparesis in traumatic spinal cord injury can be successfully treated with PPV exceeding 30 days, surgery, and physical therapy.
The American Association of Veterinary Clinicians (AAVC) convened a Diversity, Equity, and Inclusivity working group in March 2021 to address the limited diversity (including but not limited to ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity) in clinical post-DVM graduate training programs and academic faculty. Concurrent with a working group formation, the AAVC developed a strategic plan. The central mission of the AAVC is to develop, support, and connect academic leaders to fuel the future of the veterinary medical profession. House officers and their training programs are central to all goals outlined in the strategic plan. Amongst other strategic goals, the working group identified best practices for intern and resident recruitment and selection. We report herein from the current health profession literature ways to identify and recruit talented, diverse candidates especially those with non-traditional (atypical) preparation and experience. We also provide recommendations on best practices for intern and resident selection. This document highlights holistic approaches, some of which are incrementally being incorporated into the Veterinary Intern Resident Matching Program application, that emphasize diversity as a selection criteria for intern and resident selection an important step towards building a more resilient and inclusive workforce. These include expanding candidate assessment beyond grades and class rank into a more standardized method for screening candidates that includes consideration of life experiences and talents outside of veterinary medicine.