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A 6-month-old sexually intact male Clumber Spaniel was evaluated because of small stature, recurrent dermatitis of the head, and progressive pigmentary hepatopathy.


Clinicopathologic findings included nonanemic hypochromic microcytosis, hypocholesterolemia, persistently high serum liver enzyme activities, and anicteric hyperbilirubinemia. Histologic examination of liver biopsy specimens collected when the dog was 6 months and 2 years of age revealed expansion and bridging of portal tracts, occasional centrilobular parenchymal collapse, scattered lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, and dark red to brown pigment within large aggregates of macrophages, engorged bile canaliculi, and hepatocytes. The pigment failed to stain for the presence of iron, copper, bile, and glycoprotein and, when examined with polarized microscopy, emitted a yellow to green birefringence with occasional Maltese cross configurations. Further analyses confirmed marked porphyrin accumulation in blood, urine, feces, and liver tissue; protoporphyrin accumulation in RBCs and liver tissue; and a signature porphyrin profile and fluorescence peak consistent with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Advanced protoporphyric hepatopathy was diagnosed. The chronic dermatopathy was presumed to reflect protoporphyric photosensitivity.


Management was focused on avoiding conditions known to induce heme synthesis and catabolism, administrating ursodeoxycholic acid and antioxidants S-adenosylmethionine and vitamin E, and avoiding sunlight exposure. At follow-up at 4 years of age, the dog was stable without evidence of jaundice but with probable persistent erythropoietic protoporphyria–related solar dermatopathy.


Clinical and histologic features of congenital erythropoietic protoporphyria and resultant protoporphyric hepatopathy, the diagnosis, and the successful management of a dog with these conditions over 4 years were described. Veterinarians should consider porphyric syndromes when unusual pigmentary hepatopathies are encountered.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine risk factors for development of sequestra in cattle and identify factors associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—110 cattle.

Procedure—Medical records of cattle treated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America were reviewed. To determine risk factors for osseous sequestration, breed, age, and sex of cattle with osseous sequestration were compared with breed, age, and sex of all other cattle admitted during the study period.

Results—110 cattle were included in the study. Three had 2 sequestra; thus, 113 lesions were identified. Most sequestra were associated with the bones of the extremities, most commonly the third metacarpal or third metatarsal bone. Ninety-two animals were treated surgically (ie, sequestrectomy), 7 were treated medically, 3 were initially treated medically and were then treated surgically, and 8 were not treated. Follow-up information was available for 65 animals treated surgically and 6 animals treated medically. Fifty-one (78%) animals treated surgically and 5 animals treated medically had a successful outcome. Cattle that were 6 months to 2 years old had a significantly increased risk of developing a sequestrum, compared with cattle < 6 months old. Cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of local anesthesia were significantly more likely to undergo 2 or more surgical procedures than were cattle in which sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of general anesthesia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that sequestrectomy will result in a successful outcome for most cattle with osseous sequestration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:376–383)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association