Objective—To evaluate transurethral cystoscopy and
excretory urography for diagnosis of ectopic ureter in
female dogs and identify concurrent urogenital abnormalities.
Animals—25 female dogs.
Procedure—Medical records of female dogs that
underwent transurethral cystoscopy, excretory urography,
and ventral cystotomy were reviewed for signalment,
history, physical examination findings,
results of bacteriologic culture of urine, and surgical
findings. Videotapes of transurethral cystoscopy and
radiographic studies were reviewed systematically
without knowledge of surgical findings.
Results—Ectopic ureters were diagnosed in 24 of 25
(96%) of the dogs, bilaterally in 22 of 24 (91.6%) dogs.
Cystoscopic evaluation yielded a correct diagnosis in all
dogs when results of ventral cystotomy were used as
the diagnostic standard. Cystoscopic evaluation identified
a terminal ureteral opening for all ureters. Urethral
fenestrations, troughs, striping, and tenting were identified.
Abnormalities of the vestibule were identified in all
examinations available for review (24/25). The paramesonephric
septal remnant and its association with
ectopic ureters were identified and characterized by cystoscopy.
Radiographic findings were discordant with
surgical findings and correctly identified 36 of 46 (78.2%)
ectopic ureters and 2 of 4 normal ureters. Hydroureter
and renal abnormalities were associated with distal urethral
ectopic ureters on radiographic evaluations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transurethral
cystoscopy was accurate and minimally invasive for identification
and classification of ectopic ureters in dogs.
Contrast radiography had limitations in diagnosis of
ectopic ureters. Cystoscopic findings and associated
vaginal and vestibular abnormalities support abnormal
embryologic development in the pathogenesis of ectopic
ureters. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:475–481)