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  • Author or Editor: Karin L. Cannizzo x
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Objective—To evaluate transurethral cystoscopy and excretory urography for diagnosis of ectopic ureter in female dogs and identify concurrent urogenital abnormalities.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—25 female dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of female dogs that underwent transurethral cystoscopy, excretory urography, and ventral cystotomy were reviewed for signalment, history, physical examination findings, results of bacteriologic culture of urine, and surgical findings. Videotapes of transurethral cystoscopy and radiographic studies were reviewed systematically without knowledge of surgical findings.

Results—Ectopic ureters were diagnosed in 24 of 25 (96%) of the dogs, bilaterally in 22 of 24 (91.6%) dogs. Cystoscopic evaluation yielded a correct diagnosis in all dogs when results of ventral cystotomy were used as the diagnostic standard. Cystoscopic evaluation identified a terminal ureteral opening for all ureters. Urethral fenestrations, troughs, striping, and tenting were identified. Abnormalities of the vestibule were identified in all examinations available for review (24/25). The paramesonephric septal remnant and its association with ectopic ureters were identified and characterized by cystoscopy. Radiographic findings were discordant with surgical findings and correctly identified 36 of 46 (78.2%) ectopic ureters and 2 of 4 normal ureters. Hydroureter and renal abnormalities were associated with distal urethral ectopic ureters on radiographic evaluations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transurethral cystoscopy was accurate and minimally invasive for identification and classification of ectopic ureters in dogs. Contrast radiography had limitations in diagnosis of ectopic ureters. Cystoscopic findings and associated vaginal and vestibular abnormalities support abnormal embryologic development in the pathogenesis of ectopic ureters. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:475–481)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association