Objective—To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays.
Sample Population—490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.
Procedures—Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed.
Results—Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats.
Objective—To compare accuracy and ease of use of a card agglutination assay, an immunochromatographic cartridge method, and a gel-based method for canine blood typing.
Sample—Blood samples from 52 healthy blood donor dogs, 10 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and 29 dogs with other diseases.
Procedures—Blood samples were tested in accordance with manufacturer guidelines. Samples with low PCVs were created by the addition of autologous plasma to separately assess the effects of anemia on test results.
Results—Compared with a composite reference standard of agreement between 2 methods, the gel-based method was found to be 100% accurate. The card agglutination assay was 89% to 91% accurate, depending on test interpretation, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method was 93% accurate but 100% specific. Errors were observed more frequently in samples from diseased dogs, particularly those with IMHA. In the presence of persistent autoagglutination, dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1.1 typing was not possible, except with the immunochromatographic cartridge method.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The card agglutination assay and immunochromatographic cartridge method, performed by trained personnel, were suitable for in-clinic emergency DEA 1.1 blood typing. There may be errors, particularly for samples from dogs with IMHA, and the immunochromatographic cartridge method may have an advantage of allowing typing of samples with persistent autoagglutination. The laboratory gel-based method would be preferred for routine DEA 1.1 typing of donors and patients if it is available and time permits. Current DEA 1.1 typing techniques appear to be appropriately standardized and easy to use.
Objective—To evaluate effects of apheresis on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and compare those MSCs with MSCs obtained from adipose tissue or bone marrow (BM).
Sample Population—Samples obtained from 6 adult horses.
Procedures—Samples of blood from a peripheral vein, adipose tissue, and BM aspirate were obtained from each horse. Samples were processed via apheresis of blood and techniques reported elsewhere for adipose tissue and BM. Cultures were maintained until adherence and subsequently were subjected to differentiation protocols to evaluate adipogenic, osteoblastogenic, and chondrogenic potential.
Results—Apheresis product had a significantly higher mononuclear percentage, higher platelet count, and lower RBC count, compared with values for peripheral blood. No cell adherence to the tissue culture plates was detected for the apheresis product. Adherence was detected for 6 of 6 adipose-derived and 4 of 6 BM-derived samples. Variations in efficiency were detected for differentiation of adipose- and BM-derived cells into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Apheresis was able to concentrate mononuclear cells and reduce RBC contamination. However, the apheresis product was unable to adhere to the tissue culture plates. In matched horses, adipose- and BM-derived MSCs were capable of producing lipids, glycosaminoglycan, and mineral. The BM was vastly superior to adipose tissue as a source of MSCs with osteoblastogenic potential in matched horses. Additional studies will be necessary to optimize apheresis techniques for horses before peripheral blood can be considered a suitable source for multipotential cells for use in cell-based treatments.