Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: Karen R. Munana x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence and clinical features of cryptogenic epilepsy among dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—214 client-owned dogs with onset of epileptic seizures at ≥ 7 years of age.

Procedures—A diagnostic imaging database was searched for dogs with symptomatic or cryptogenic epilepsy. Signalment, seizure history, and diagnostic information were recorded. Information regarding seizure frequency, administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), owners' perceptions regarding quality of life, survival times, and causes of death for dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy was obtained via questionnaire. Variables were compared among dogs grouped according to diagnosis and age.

Results—45 (21%) dogs had a diagnosis of cryptogenic epilepsy, and 169 (79%) had symptomatic epilepsy. In dogs 7 to 9 years and ≥ 10 years of age at the time of seizure onset, 31 of 106 (29%) and 14 of 108 (13%), respectively, had a diagnosis of cryptogenic epilepsy. At last follow-up, most (40 [89%]) dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy were receiving ≥ 1 AED. Thirty-one of 37 (84%) dogs typically had ≤ 1 seizure/mo following hospital discharge. Death was confirmed in 20 (44%) dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy and was related to seizures or AEDs in 7 Median survival time from onset of seizures was 52 months for all dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy. Median quality-of-life score (scale, 1 [poor] to 10 [excellent]) indicated by 34 owners of dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy was 10 before diagnosis and initiation of AED treatment and 8 afterward.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cryptogenic epilepsy was diagnosed in a substantial proportion of dogs with an onset of epileptic seizures at ≥ 7 years of age. Seizure control was considered acceptable in most dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam (LEV) after single-dose oral administration in healthy dogs and determine whether pharmacokinetics changed after repeated oral dosing.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Pharmacokinetics were calculated following administration of a single dose (mean, 21.7 mg/kg, PO; day 1) and after administration of the last dose following administration for 6 days (20.8 to 22.7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; days 2 to 7). Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by use of high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by use of a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption.

Results—Peak concentration occurred 0.6 hours after administration of the first dose, with an absorption half-life of 0.06 hours. Minimal accumulation occurred over the 7 days, with only a slight increase in total area under the concentration-versus-time curve from 268.52 ± 56.33 h·μg/mL (mean ± SD) to 289.31 ± 51.68 h·μg/mL after 7 days. Terminal half-life was 2.87 ± 0.21 hours after the first dose and 3.59 ± 0.82 hours after the last dose on day 7. Trough plasma concentrations were variable, depending on the time of day they were measured (morning trough concentration, 18.42 ± 5.16 μg/mL; midday trough concentration, 12.57 ± 4.34 μg/mL), suggesting a diurnal variation in drug excretion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of LEV did not change appreciably after administration of multiple doses over 7 days. Administration of LEV at a dosage of 20 mg/kg, PO, every 8 hours to healthy dogs yielded plasma drug concentrations consistently within the therapeutic range established for LEV in humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for episodes of status epilepticus (SE) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and determine how SE affects long-term outcome and survival time.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—32 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

Procedure—Information on signalment, seizure onset, initiation of treatment, anticonvulsants administered, number of episodes of SE, overall seizure control, and long-term outcome was obtained from medical records and through telephone interviews. Differences between dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE were evaluated statistically.

Results—19 (59%) dogs had 1 or more episodes of SE. Body weight was the only variable significantly different between dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE. Thirteen dogs (9 that did not have episodes of SE and 4 that did) were still alive at the time of the study and were ≥ 10 years old. Six of the 19 (32%) dogs that had episodes of SE died of causes directly attributed to the seizure disorder. Mean life spans of dogs that did and did not have episodes of SE were 8.3 and 11.3 years, respectively. Survival time was significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a substantial percentage of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy will have episodes of SE. Dogs with greater body weights were more likely to have episodes of SE, and early appropriate seizure treatment did not appear to decrease the risk that dogs would have episodes. Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy had an expected life span, but survival time was shorter for dogs that had episodes of SE. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:618–623)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop and compare the reliability of 2 methods of scoring pelvic limb gait in dogs recovering from thoracolumbar spinal cord injuries and to use this scoring system to determine the rate and level of functional recovery of dogs with acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniations.

Animals—46 dogs with spinal cord injuries resulting from intervertebral disk herniations.

Procedure—Dogs' gaits were videotaped at different time intervals after injury. In phase 1 of the study, the stages of recovery of pelvic limb function were identified, and a numeric scoring system was devised to reflect that recovery. In phase 2, pelvic limb gait was scored by different observers, using a numeric and a visual analog scale. Intra- and interobserver coefficients of variability of both methods were compared. In phase 3, pelvic limb function was scored, using the numeric scale at various intervals after acute thoracolumbar disk herniations.

Results—The numeric scale was significantly more reliable than the visual analog scale when both intraand interobserver coefficients of variability were evaluated. Dogs that were paraplegic with no deep pain sensation recovered at different rates during the first 3 months, whereas dogs that were paraplegic with deep pain sensation typically recovered within 1 month of injury.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Pelvic limb gait of dogs recovering from thoracolumbar spinal cord injuries can be reliably quantified, using a numeric scale. This scale will facilitate the performance of clinical trials aimed at improving the outcome of acute spinal cord injuries. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1624–1628)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify predictive factors of long-term outcome after dorsal decompressive laminectomy for the treatment of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—69 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs that had undergone dorsal laminectomy at North Carolina State University and the University of Tennessee between 1987 and 1997 were reviewed. Dogs with diskospondylitis, traumatic lesions, or neoplasia of the lumbosacral region were excluded. All dogs had evidence of cauda equina compression on myelography, epidurography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging, along with subsequent confirmation of the lesion at surgery. Follow-up was performed by telephone inquiries to the referring veterinarian, the owner, or both, using a detailed questionnaire.

Results—The outcome was excellent or good in 54 of 69 (78%) dogs over a mean follow-up period of 38 ± 22 months. Five of these 54 dogs had been incontinent for a median of 2 weeks prior to surgery. Six of the 15 dogs with a poor outcome had been incontinent for a median of 8 weeks before surgery. A significant correlation was detected between the presence of urinary and fecal incontinence prior to surgery and outcome. When duration of signs was considered, urinary incontinence was the only variable that significantly affected outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Decompressive laminectomy is an effective treatment for DLSS, although dogs with urinary or fecal incontinence have a worse prognosis than dogs that are continent before surgery. Chronic urinary incontinence is a predictor of poor outcome for dogs with DLSS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:624–628)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate safety and efficacy of vagal nerve stimulation in dogs with refractory epilepsy.

Design—Placebo-controlled, double-masked, crossover study.

Animals—10 dogs with poorly controlled seizures.

Procedure—A programmable pacemaker-like device designed to deliver intermittent stimulation to the left cervical trunk of the vagus was surgically implanted in each dog. Dogs were assigned randomly to two 13- week test periods, 1 with nerve stimulation and 1 without nerve stimulation. Owners recorded data on seizure frequency, duration, and intensity, as well as adverse effects.

Results—No significant difference in seizure frequency, duration, or severity was detected between overall 13-week treatment and control periods. During the final 4 weeks of the treatment period, a significant decrease in mean seizure frequency (34.4%) was detected, compared with the control period. Complications included transient bradycardia, asystole, and apnea during intraoperative device testing, and seroma formation, subcutaneous migration of the generator, and transient Horner's syndrome during the 14-day period between surgery and suture removal. No adverse effects of stimulation were detected, and most owners were satisfied with the treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vagal nerve stimulation is a potentially safe approach to seizure control that appears to be efficacious in certain dogs and should be considered a possible treatment option when antiepileptic medications are ineffective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:977–983)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the feasibility and pharmacokinetics of cytarabine delivery as a subcutaneous continuous-rate infusion with the Omnipod system.

ANIMALS

6 client-owned dogs diagnosed with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology were enrolled through the North Carolina State University Veterinary Hospital.

PROCEDURES

Cytarabine was delivered at a rate of 50 mg/m2/hour as an SC continuous-rate infusion over 8 hours using the Omnipod system. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after initiation of the infusion. Plasma cytarabine concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A nonlinear mixed-effects approach generated population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates.

RESULTS

The mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL), average time to Cmax was 7 hours (range, 4 to 8 hours; SD, 1.67 hours), terminal half-life was 1.13 hours (SD, 0.29 hour), and the mean area under the curve was 52,996.82 hours X μg/mL (range, 35,963.67 to 71,848.37 hours X μg/mL; SD, 12,960.90 hours X μg/mL). Cmax concentrations for all dogs were more than 1,000 ng/mL (1.0 μg/mL) at the 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-hour time points.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

An SC continuous-rate infusion of cytarabine via the Omnipod system is feasible in dogs and was able to achieve a steady-state concentration of more than 1 μg/mL 4 to 10 hours postinitiation of cytarabine and a Cmax of 7,510 ng/mL (range, 5,040 to 9,690 ng/mL; SD, 1,912.41 ng/mL). These are comparable to values reported previously with IV continuous-rate infusion administration in healthy research Beagles and dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown etiology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association