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  • Author or Editor: Karen Moriello x
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SUMMARY

Fourteen cats were inoculated orally with 1 of 2 infective doses of Toxocara canis to induce eosin-ophilia. Cats were subsequently challenge exposed twice via intraperitoneal injection with 1 of 2 Tcanis antigen preparations. Peritoneal lavage was performed 2 days after antigenic challenge exposure, and eosinophils in the peritoneal lavage fluid were quantified.

None of the cats developed clinical signs of disease after infection. All cats developed peripheral eosinophilia after infection. Significant (P < 0.05) difference in mean eosinophil count from the lavage fluid was observed between lavage 1 (prechallengc exposure) and lavages 2 and 3 (postchallcnge exposure) in both groups of cats. Significant difference in eosinophil count was not found between cats given different doses of eggs. After initial challenge exposure, significantly (P < 0.05) more eosinophils were obtained from cats given antigen preparation 2 (prep-2) than from those given antigen prep-1. This difference was no longer observed after the second challenge exposure with higher doses of either antigen prep-1 or prep-2. In cats given antigen prep-2, significant difference was not found between lavages 2 and 3. However, in cats given antigen prep-1, eosinophil count was significantly (P = 0.005) greater in fluid obtained from lavage 3, compared with eosinophil count from lavage 2. Mean ± SEM percentage of eosinophils in the fluid from lavage 3 in all cats was 70.8 ± 2.2%. Other cell types included macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells.

Gross postmortem findings were mild. One- to 3-mm nodular white foci of inflammation were observed on the serosal surfaces of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and omentum. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed pulmonary artery hypertrophy (n = 4), eosinophilic peribronchitis and perivasculitis (n = 10), mild granulomatous interstitial nephritis (n = 6), interstitial pancreatitis (n = 1), focal lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 1), focal eosinophilic granulomatous hepatitis (n = 1), and eosinophilic hyperplasia of bone marrow (n = 14).

Large numbers of eosinophils could be harvested from the peritoneal cavity of cats inoculated orally with 500 embryonated T canis eggs and subsequently challenge-exposed intraperitoneally with preparations of parasite antigens. After the second challenge exposure, at least 108 eosinophils could be harvested from each cat, yielding eosinophils in the quantity required to begin isolation of granule constituents.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An experimental model of dermatophytosis was used to compare the efficacy of 2 topical antifungal treatments against Microsporum canis infection in cats. Infection was established in 24 cats by topical application of 105 M canis macroconidia to the skin of the lateral part of the abdomen under an occlusive bandage. Three groups of 6 cats each then were treated twice weekly for 18 weeks with chlorhexidine shampoo and dip, detergent shampoo vehicle only, or glyceryl monolaurate shampoo. Six cats were left untreated as controls.

The experimentally induced infections strongly resembled naturally developing infections of moderate to severe nature. Signs of infection peaked in severity at 5 weeks after inoculation, then gradually resolved over 7 to 16 additional weeks. Dermatophytes were consistently isolated on culture for at least 8 weeks of treatment. Mycologic cure (defined as lack of dermatophyte isolation on 3 successive weekly cultures) was attained in 8 cats at the end of 18 weeks of treatment. Infections appeared to resolve at equivalent rates in all groups of cats, including controls. Consistent or meaningful significant differences in variables such as lesion size, clinical sign score, or total infection score were not found between treated and control groups. Our study revealed that this topical treatment regimen with chlorhexidine or glyceryl monolaurate is ineffective against M canis infection in cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To evaluate the efficacy of itraconazole and griseofulvin in the treatment of Microsporum canis infection, 15 juvenile cats were infected by topical application of 105 live M canis macroconidia to the skin of the lateral part of the trunk, and an occlusive bandage was applied. After 3 weeks, cats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 5 each): cats in the first group received griseofulvin (50 mg/kg of body weight, po, q 24 h); the second group received itraconazole (10 mg/kg, po, q 24 h); and the third group (control) received an equivalent volume of vehicle (without drug, po, q 24 h). Treatment continued for 100 days, or until mycologic cure (lack of dermatophyte isolation on 3 consecutive weekly fungal cultures) was achieved.

Infection in all cats peaked in severity at week 6 after inoculation, then gradually resolved over the next 11 weeks. The itraconazole-treated group was the first to achieve a cure, after receiving 56 days of treatment, followed by the griseofulvin-treated group at 70 days. None of the cats in the control group reached mycologic cure after 100 days of treatment. As early as day 14 of treatment, the griseofulvin- and itraconazole-treated groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower mean infection scores, compared with those in the control group. Significant differences in the mean infection scores between the itraconazole- and griseofulvin-treated groups were not found. This study revealed that griseofulvin and itraconazole, each as sole treatment, significantly altered the course of infection, compared with that in a vehicle-treated control group. Both drugs were effective in the treatment of experimentally induced dermatophytosis in cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The fungal flora of the coat of 172 healthy pet cats was examined qualitatively. Fungi were isolated from 136 (79%) of the 172 cats. Fifteen genera were isolated; 13 are commonly regarded as saprophytes, and 2 (Microsporum and Trichophyton) are commonly regarded as pathogens. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium, and Cladosporium spp were the most frequently isolated saprophytes. Dermatophytic fungi, including Microsporum gypseum (n = 1), M vanbreuseghemii (n = 1), and Trichophyton rubrum (n = 14), were recovered from 16 cats. Microsporum canis was not isolated from any cat during this study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To determine the effects of 9 sedative/anesthetic drug protocols on intradermal skin testing, an experimental state of type-I hypersensitivity was created. Intradermal skin tests were performed on 6 dogs, using positive and negative controls and a series of tenfold dilutions of Asc-1 allergen prior to drug administration. Approximately 4 hours later, the dogs were given 1 of the following drugs: acepromazine (low dose and high dose); ketamine hydrochloride with diazepam; thiamylal; oxymorphone; halothane; methoxyflurane; or isoflurane. The intradermal skin test then was repeated, and was scored objectively and subjectively. Objective scores were unaffected by any of the drugs. Subjective scores were affected in that acepromazine decreased wheal size and the induration of the intradermal skin test reaction sites.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Twenty-nine pruritic, atopic dogs were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy of an investigational antiallergenic compound, AHR-13268. Fourteen dogs were evaluated by a veterinary dermatologist (at intervals) and the owner (daily). Fifteen dogs were evaluated only by the owner. The mean (± se) owner scores for pruritus, erythema, and lesions with placebo treatment (higher score = worse signs) were 3.24 (± 0.12), 2.73 (± 0.12), and 2.61 (± 0.09), respectively. With drug treatment, the corresponding scores were 2.89 (± 0.12), 2.50 (± 0.12), and 2.25 (± 0.09). Scores for pruritus and lesions (but not erythema) were significantly better with drug treatment than with placebo treatment. Investigator scores showed similar trends, but the differences were not great enough to be statistically significant. Overall, 11/29 (38%) owners reported their dogs had moderate or better improvement from drug capsules, and 4/29 dogs (14%) improved on placebo capsules A variety of adverse effects were reported following both drug (9/29 dogs) and placebo (8/29 dogs) capsule administration, but were mild and well tolerated. Results of this study indicate that AHR-13268 has potential for empiric treatment of allergic inhalant dermatitis in some dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of lufenuron treatment in cats on the establishment and course of Microsporum canis infection following exposure to infected cats.

Design—Experimental trial.

Animals—24 healthy juvenile domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—8 cats were given lufenuron PO (133 mg/cat/mo, equivalent to a dose of 100 to 130 mg/kg [45 to 59 mg/lb] at the beginning of the study and 25 to 35 mg/kg [11 to 16 mg/lb] at the end of the study), and 8 were given lufenuron SC (40 mg every 6 months). The remaining 8 were used as untreated control cats. After 4 months, cats were challenged by the introduction of cats with mild, experimentally induced M canis infection into the rooms where cats were housed. Extent of resulting infections in the naïve cats was monitored for 22 weeks by physical examination and fungal culture.

Results—All lufenuron-treated and control cats became infected with M canis. Cats treated with lufenuron had significantly lower infection scores, compared with control cats, during the early weeks following exposure, and there was a more prolonged initial progression phase of the infection. Once infections reached peak intensity, they resolved over similar periods in lufenuron-treated and control cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that oral or SC administration of lufenuron to cats, at the dosages used and under the conditions of this study, did not prevent establishment of dermatophytosis following exposure to infected cats. Infection was established more slowly among cats treated with lufenuron, but once established, infection resolved in approximately the same amount of time in lufenuron-treated as in control cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1216–1220)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Autologous tissue transmission of spontaneously developing feline eosinophilic plaques was attempted in 5 cats. Macerated tissue from the plaque was vigorously rubbed onto 2 scarified skin sites in each cat. The inoculated areas were observed daily for 30 days. During that time, no clinical or histologic evidence of transmission was found.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Twenty-one dogs with idiopathic superficial recurrent pyoderma were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial staphylococcal bacterin. The study spanned an 18-week period. All dogs were administered sodium oxacillin orally for the initial 6 weeks of the study. Dogs were given the bacterin or placebo sc, twice weekly at 3- or 4-day intervals, beginning at week 0 and continuing for 18 weeks. Dogs given antibiotics plus the bacterin (n = 13) hada significantly (P < 0.05) better treatment response than those given antibiotic plus placebo.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research