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Abstract

Objective—To determine the duration of fecal shedding of and serologic response to Salmonella spp after natural infection in dairy calves and characterize Salmonella organisms recovered from these herds.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Animals—Calves from 2 dairy herds (A and B) in the northeast United States that were identified at the beginning of a Salmonella outbreak.

Procedures—Fecal samples were collected twice per week (herd A) or once per week (herd B); blood samples were collected for serologic testing once per week in both herds. Bacteriologic culture of fecal samples was performed, and Salmonella isolates were characterized by serotype, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, and antimicrobial resistance profile.

Results—All Salmonella isolates from herd A were serovar Typhimurium var Copenhagen, had the same PFGE pattern, and were resistant to at least 9 antimicrobials. All isolates from herd B were Salmonella Typhimurium, represented 2 PFGE patterns, and were susceptible to all antimicrobials evaluated. The estimated duration of fecal shedding was 14 days in herd A and 9 days in herd B. Few calves were seropositive for antibody against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide within the first week after birth (0 of 20 in herd A and 13 of 79 in herd B) or seroconverted (6 in herd A and 4 in herd B). Fecal shedding was more common in calves that seroconverted, but overall, there was not a strong association between seropositivity and fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although the herds differed in serologic response and Salmonella subtype, the duration of fecal shedding among calves was similar between herds.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine comparative efficacy of vaccines administered IM and intranasally, used alone or sequentially, to protect puppies from infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica and determine whether systemic or mucosal antibody response correlated with protection.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—50 specific-pathogen-free Beagle puppies.

Procedure—In 2 replicates of 25 dogs each, 14-weekold puppies that were vaccinated against canine distemper virus and parvovirus were vaccinated against B bronchiseptica via intranasal, IM, intranasal-IM, or IMintranasal administration or were unvaccinated controls. Puppies were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of B bronchiseptica 2 weeks after final vaccination. Clinical variables and systemic and mucosal antibody responses were monitored for 10 days after challenge exposure. Puppies in replicate 1 were necropsied for histologic and immunohistochemical studies.

Results—Control puppies that were seronegative before challenge exposure developed paroxysmal coughing, signs of depression, anorexia, and fever. Vaccinated puppies (either vaccine) that were seronegative before challenge exposure had fewer clinical signs. Puppies that received both vaccines had the least severe clinical signs and fewest lesions in the respiratory tract. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive antibodies in serum saliva before and after challenge. Antibody concentrations were negatively correlated with bacterial growth in nasal cavity and pharyngeal samples after challenge exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenterally and intranasally administered vaccines containing B bronchiseptica may provide substantial protection from clinical signs of respiratory tract disease associated with infection by this bacterium. Administration of both types of vaccines in sequence afforded the greatest degree of protection against disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:367–375)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association