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Abstract

Objective

To identify eosinophil progenitor cells in feline bone marrow, establishing an assay method to use in studies of eosinophilopoiesis and eosinophilopoietic factors in cats.

Animals

Healthy, laboratory animal source cats.

Procedure

Sources of colony-stimulating activity were prepared by conditioning media with bone marrow, spleen, and blood mononuclear cells from cats infected with Toxocara canis. Bone marrow cells were aspirated and cultured to develop the eosinophil progenitor cell assay and to test cells from 9 healthy cats in the assay.

Results

Optimal conditions for identifying colonyforming units-eosinophil and cluster-forming units-eosinophil were as follows. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (105) were plated in 1 ml of supplemented medium, fetal bovine serum, and agar. The source of eosinophil growth factor(s) was bone marrow-conditioned medium made in the presence of 2.5 µg of concanavalin A/ml; other conditioned media also supported eosinophil colony growth. Dishes were incubated for 7 days at 37 C and 7% CO2. The colonyforming units-eosinophil formed aggregates of > 50 Luxol fast blue-positive cells and had dispersed morphology; the cluster-forming units-eosinophil formed aggregates of < 50 cells.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Similar to other species, cats have separate and distinct eosinophil progenitor cells. The eosinophil progenitor assay may be used to characterize altered kinetics of eosinophilopoiesis, to assess eosinophil growth factors, and to evaluate therapeutic regimens that might be useful in the management of excess eosinophil production. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:348-353)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Fourteen cats were inoculated orally with 1 of 2 infective doses of Toxocara canis to induce eosin-ophilia. Cats were subsequently challenge exposed twice via intraperitoneal injection with 1 of 2 Tcanis antigen preparations. Peritoneal lavage was performed 2 days after antigenic challenge exposure, and eosinophils in the peritoneal lavage fluid were quantified.

None of the cats developed clinical signs of disease after infection. All cats developed peripheral eosinophilia after infection. Significant (P < 0.05) difference in mean eosinophil count from the lavage fluid was observed between lavage 1 (prechallengc exposure) and lavages 2 and 3 (postchallcnge exposure) in both groups of cats. Significant difference in eosinophil count was not found between cats given different doses of eggs. After initial challenge exposure, significantly (P < 0.05) more eosinophils were obtained from cats given antigen preparation 2 (prep-2) than from those given antigen prep-1. This difference was no longer observed after the second challenge exposure with higher doses of either antigen prep-1 or prep-2. In cats given antigen prep-2, significant difference was not found between lavages 2 and 3. However, in cats given antigen prep-1, eosinophil count was significantly (P = 0.005) greater in fluid obtained from lavage 3, compared with eosinophil count from lavage 2. Mean ± SEM percentage of eosinophils in the fluid from lavage 3 in all cats was 70.8 ± 2.2%. Other cell types included macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells.

Gross postmortem findings were mild. One- to 3-mm nodular white foci of inflammation were observed on the serosal surfaces of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and omentum. Microscopic examination of tissues revealed pulmonary artery hypertrophy (n = 4), eosinophilic peribronchitis and perivasculitis (n = 10), mild granulomatous interstitial nephritis (n = 6), interstitial pancreatitis (n = 1), focal lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 1), focal eosinophilic granulomatous hepatitis (n = 1), and eosinophilic hyperplasia of bone marrow (n = 14).

Large numbers of eosinophils could be harvested from the peritoneal cavity of cats inoculated orally with 500 embryonated T canis eggs and subsequently challenge-exposed intraperitoneally with preparations of parasite antigens. After the second challenge exposure, at least 108 eosinophils could be harvested from each cat, yielding eosinophils in the quantity required to begin isolation of granule constituents.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of disinfectant-filled foot mats at reducing tracking of Salmonella enterica and overall bacterial contamination on floors in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Prospective study.

Samples—Bacteria collected from floors before and after placement of disinfectant-filled foot mats.

Procedures—Foot mats filled with a phenolic-based disinfectant were placed at key transition areas in common-use corridors between the large animal hospital (LAH) and small animal hospital in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Microbiological samples were collected for total bacterial counts and for the presence of S enterica at 14 designated sample sites in the veterinary medical teaching hospital. Samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 months before mat placement and for 13 months after mat placement.

Results—Median numbers of aerobic bacteria isolated before and after disinfectant mat placement were not significantly different for most sites sampled. For 3 of the 4 transition areas between the LAH and connecting common-use corridor, there was a significant difference in median bacterial counts on either side of the threshold. This difference was significant regardless of whether a disinfectant mat was present or not. Salmonella enterica isolates were cultured from several sites in the LAH and sites outside the LAH, irrespective of the presence of a disinfectant mat.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Disinfectant-filled mats may not be uniformly effective in reducing the bacterial load on floors or in reducing mechanical tracking of S enterica from contaminated areas in a veterinary teaching hospital. Further studies are needed to determine effective measures to reduce mechanical transmission of bacteria on footwear in veterinary hospitals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare cardiopulmonary responses during anesthesia maintained with halothane and responses during anesthesia maintained by use of a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA) regimen in horses.

Animals—7 healthy adult horses (1 female, 6 geldings).

Procedure—Each horse was anesthetized twice. Romifidine was administered IV, and anesthesia was induced by IV administration of ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained for 75 minutes by administration of halothane (HA) or IV infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine (TIVA). The order for TIVA or HA was randomized. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured 40, 60, and 75 minutes after the start of HA or TIVA.

Results—Systolic, diastolic, and mean carotid arterial pressures, velocity time integral, and peak acceleration of aortic blood flow were greater, and systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were lower at all time points for TIVA than for HA. Pre-ejection period was shorter and ejection time was longer for TIVA than for HA. Heart rate was greater for HA at 60 minutes. Minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation were greater and inspiratory time was longer for TIVA than for HA at 75 minutes. The PaCO2 was higher at 60 and 75 minutes for HA than for TIVA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses receiving a constant-rate infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine maintained higher arterial blood pressures than when they were administered HA. There was some indication that left ventricular function may be better during TIVA, but influences of preload and afterload on measured variables could account for some of these differences. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1655–1661)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of flunixin meglumine and etodolac treatment on recovery of ischemicinjured equine jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of reperfusion.

Animals—24 horses.

Procedure—Jejunum was exposed to 2 hours of ischemia during anesthesia. Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (12 mL, IV, q 12 h), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or etodolac (23 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h). Tissue specimens were obtained from ischemic-injured and nonischemic jejunum immediately after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery from ischemia. Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and transepithelial flux of tritium-labeled mannitol measured mucosal permeability. Denuded villous surface area and mean epithelial neutrophil count per mm2 were calculated. Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 was performed. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin and etodolac and eicosanoid concentrations were determined.

Results—Ischemic-injured tissue from horses treated with flunixin and etodolac had significantly lower TER and increased permeability to mannitol, compared with that from horses treated with saline solution. Epithelial denudation after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery was not significantly different among treatments. Both COX-1 and -2 were expressed in ischemic-injured and nonischemic tissues. Ischemia caused significant upregulation of both COX isoforms. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly lower in tissues from flunixin and etodolac-treated horses, compared with that from horses treated with saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flunixin and etodolac treatment retarded recovery of intestinal barrier function in jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of reperfusion, whereas tissues from horses treated with saline solution recovered baseline values of TER and permeability to mannitol. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:761–769)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of dobutamine hydrochloride (0.5 µg/kg of body weight/min) in halothane-anesthetized horses.

Animals—6 adult Thoroughbred horses.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced by use of romifidine (100 µg/kg) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg), IV. Anesthesia was maintained by halothane (end-tidal concentration 0.9 to 1.0%). Aortic, left ventricular, and right atrial pressures were measured, using cathetermounted strain gauge transducers. Cardiac output (CO), velocity time integral, maximal aortic blood flow velocity and acceleration, and left ventricular preejection period and ejection time were measured from aortic velocity waveforms obtained by transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Velocity waveforms were recorded from the femoral vessels, using Doppler ultrasonography. The time-averaged mean velocity and early diastolic deceleration slope (EDDS) were measured. Pulsatility index (PI) and volumetric flow were calculated. Microvascular perfusion was measured in the semimembranosus muscles by laser Doppler flowmetry. Data were recorded 60 minutes after induction of anesthesia (control) and at 15 and 30 minutes after start of an infusion of dobutamine (0.5 µg/kg/min).

Results—Aortic pressures were significantly increased during the infusion of dobutamine. No change was observed in the indices of left ventricular systolic function including CO. Femoral arterial flow significantly increased, and the PI and EDDS decreased. No change was observed in the femoral venous flow or in microvascular perfusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At this dosage, dobutamine did not alter left ventricular systolic function. Femoral blood flow was preferentially increased as the result of local vasodilatation. The lack of effect of dobutamine on microvascular perfusion suggests that increased femoral flow is not necessarily associated with improved perfusion of skeletal muscles. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1282–1288)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the accuracy of cytologic diagnosis, compared with histologic diagnosis, in determination of disease in ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates of splenic lesions.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—Splenic specimens from 29 dogs and 3 cats.

Procedures—Records were searched for dogs and cats that had undergone ultrasound-guided splenic aspiration. Criteria for inclusion were ultrasonographic identification of splenic lesions and cytologic and histologic evaluation of tissue from the same lesion. Cytologic samples were obtained by fine-needle aspiration, and histologic specimens were obtained via surgical biopsy, ultrasound-guided biopsy, or necropsy.

Results—Cytologic diagnoses corresponded with histologic diagnoses in 19 of 31 (61.3%) cases and differed in 5 of 31(16.1%) cases, and 1 aspirate was inadequate for evaluation. In 7 of 31 (22.6%) cases, histologic evaluation of tissue architecture was required to distinguish between reactive and neoplastic conditions. On the basis of histologic diagnosis in 14 animals with nonneoplastic conditions, the cytologic diagnosis was correct in 11 cases, not definitive in 2 cases, and incorrect in 1 case. In 17 animals with malignant neoplastic diseases, the cytologic diagnosis was correct in 8 cases, not definitive but consistent with possible neoplasia in 5 cases, and incorrect in 4 cases. Multiple similar-appearing nodules were significantly associated with malignancy, whereas single lesions were more often benign.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasound-guided aspiration of splenic lesions is a minimally invasive tool for obtaining specimens for cytologic evaluation. Although cytologic diagnoses often reflect histologic results, if missampling or incomplete sampling occurs or tissue architecture is required to distinguish between reactive and neoplastic conditions, accurate diagnosis with fine-needle aspiration may not be possible.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To use Doppler ultrasonography and singlefiber laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to evaluate blood flow in the dependent and nondependent hind limbs of anesthetized horses and to evaluate changes in femoral arterial blood flow and microvascular skeletal muscle perfusion in response to administration of phenylephrine hydrochloride or dobutamine hydrochloride.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized and positioned in left lateral recumbency. Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure velocity and volumetric flow in the femoral vessels. Single-fiber LDF was used to measure relative microvascular perfusion at a single site in the semimembranosus muscles. Phenylephrine or dobutamine was then administered to decrease or increase femoral arterial blood flow, and changes in blood flow and microvascular perfusion were recorded.

Results—Administration of phenylephrine resulted in significant decreases in femoral arterial and venous blood flows and cardiac output and significant increases in mean aortic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and PCV. Administration of dobutamine resulted in significant increases in femoral arterial blood flow, mean aortic blood pressure, and PCV. Significant changes in microvascular perfusion were not detected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that Doppler ultrasonography and single-fiber LDF can be used to study blood flows in the hind limbs of anesthetized horses. However, further studies are required to determine why changes in femoral arterial blood flows were not associated with changes in microvascular perfusion. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:286–290)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the diagnostic value of aerobic microbial culture and cytologic evaluation of corneal specimens in the diagnosis of infectious ulcerative keratitis (IUK).

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

48 animals (26 dogs, 13 horses, 7 cats, 1 bird, and 1 llama) with corneal ulcers.

Procedure

Scrapings from corneal ulcers were examined cytologically. Corneal swab specimens were submitted for microbial culture. Animals were grouped according to whether they had been receiving antimicrobials at the time of admission.

Results

Of the 38 animals receiving antimicrobials, 19 had positive results for IUK on cytologic evaluation, 20 on microbial culture, and 26 on cytologic evaluation, microbial culture, or both. Of the 10 animals not receiving antimicrobials at the time of admission, 7 had positive results for IUK on cytologic evaluation, and 9 had positive results on microbial culture. In this group of 10 animals, additional animals with IUK were not identified on the basis of cytologic evaluation alone. When all 48 animals were considered irrespective of antimicrobial treatment, 26 and 29 had positive results for IUK on cytologic evaluation and microbial culture, respectively, whereas IUK was confirmed in 35 animals on the basis of cytologic evaluation, microbial culture results, or both.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Microbial culture and cytologic evaluation of corneal specimens maximizes identification of IUK, especially in animals receiving antimicrobial treatment. Because of serious consequences of untreated IUK, we recommend that both diagnostic tests be used to tailor treatment and reduce risk of vision impairment in animals. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1671–1674)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine nonenteric sites associated with Escherichia coli isolates in dogs and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—17,000 canine specimens.

Procedure—Medical records of 17,000 canine specimens submitted for bacteriologic culture were examined and the number of isolations of E coli was determined. For these cases, records were further examined with respect to body system involvement, sex, concurrent infection with other species of bacteria, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results—674 E coli isolates (424 from urine, 62 from the skin, 52 from the respiratory tract, 45 from the ear, 43 from the female reproductive tract, 25 from the male reproductive tract, and 23 from other organ systems) were identified. There was a significantly higher proportion of isolates from urine specimens from spayed females than from sexually intact females or males. Escherichia coli was isolated in pure culture from 65.9% of the specimens. Most E coli isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin (90%), enrofloxacin (87.5%), gentamicin (90.7%), and amikacin (85.9%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most nonenteric E coli infections in dogs involve the urinary tract. Amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin have the highest efficacy against canine E coli isolates. For E coli isolates from dogs, in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents has remained fairly stable during the past decade. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:381–384)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association