Objective—To determine postoperative (≤ 6 days),
short-term (≤ 90 days), and long-term (≥ 6 months)
outcomes of cats undergoing ameroid constrictor
occlusion of single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic
shunts (PSS) and identify factors associated
Procedure—Cats with single congenital PSS that
underwent surgical placement of ameroid constrictors
were identified. Follow-up information was obtained
through telephone interviews and facsimile correspondence
with referring veterinarians and owners.
Results—All cats survived the surgery and were discharged
from the hospital. One cat had seizures during
the postoperative period. Five cats were clinically
normal during follow-up evaluations within 90 days
after the surgery. Long-term follow-up information
was available for 9 cats. Three were clinically normal,
4 had been euthanatized because of progressive neurologic
disease, and 2 had neurologic abnormalities
that could not be controlled with medication. Four of
7 cats with continued or recurrent neurologic abnormalities
1 or more months after surgery had normal
scintigraphic or hepatic function test results 2 to 6
months after surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that the long-term outcome of ameroid constrictor
occlusion of PSS in cats is poor. Owners of older
cats and cats with preexisting neurologic signs should
be made aware of the potential for a poor outcome
when considering surgical correction of this disease.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:337–341)
Objective—To identify the most common causes of
pneumoperitoneum in dogs and cats and determine
history, clinical features, and outcome of affected animals.
Animals—31 dogs and 8 cats.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment;
history; abnormal physical, clinicopathologic,
and radiographic findings; results of cytologic
analysis and bacterial culture of abdominal fluid; gross
and histologic findings at surgery or necropsy; and
Results—Pneumoperitoneum was classified as spontaneous
in 25 animals and traumatic in 14. Causes of
traumatic pneumoperitoneum included vehicular
impact, gunshot wounds, abdominal dog bite wounds,
and iatrogenic pneumothorax. Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum
was caused by gastrointestinal tract
perforation in 23 animals; underlying causes included
neoplasia, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration,
and corticosteroid administration. Two animals
developed spontaneous pneumoperitoneum
after bladder rupture. Animals with spontaneous pneumoperitoneum
were significantly older and had clinical
signs of longer duration than those with traumatic
pneumoperitoneum. Sixteen animals survived, including
15 of 23 animals that underwent surgery. Animals
that survived had significantly higher serum albumin
concentrations than did animals that died or were
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
pneumoperitoneum is most often attributable to perforation
of a hollow viscus, other causes do exist. Early
exploration is recommended for diagnosis and treatment
of the underlying condition. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine the annual and overall proportion
of diagnoses of congenital portosystemic
shunts (CPSS) in dogs and identify breeds at
increased risk for CPSS.
Animals—2,400 dogs with CPSS from veterinary
teaching hospitals that reported to the Veterinary
Medical Database (VMDB) from January 1, 1980 to
February 28, 2002.
Procedure—The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS
was calculated for all dogs and each breed recorded
in the VMDB annually and for the 22.2-year period.
Odds ratios and adjusted confidence intervals were
calculated for breeds with at least 100 accessions by
comparing odds of each breed with a diagnosis of
CPSS with that of mixed-breed dogs.
Results—Congenital portosystemic shunts were
reported in 0.18% of all dogs and 0.05% of mixedbreed
dogs. The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS
increased from 5 in 10,000 dogs in 1980 to 5 in 1,000
dogs in 2001. Yorkshire Terriers had the greatest total
number of diagnoses of CPSS. Thirty-three breeds
were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of
CPSS, compared with mixed-breed dogs. The greatest
proportions of diagnoses were found in Havanese
(3.2%), Yorkshire Terriers (2.9%), Maltese (1.6%),
Dandie Dinmont Terriers (1.6%), and Pugs (1.3%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Certain
breeds appear to be at increased risk for CPSS, compared
with mixed-breed dogs. The increased odds
ratios among specific breeds support the hypothesis
of a genetic predisposition for CPSS. Clients and veterinarians
should consider appropriate diagnostic
tests for dogs with clinical signs and those used for
breeding from breeds with increased risk of CPSS.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1636–1639)
Objective—To determine whether signalment, duration
of hernia, clinical signs, contents of hernia, CBC
and serum biochemical abnormalities, concurrent
injuries, perioperative treatment and administration of
analgesics, results of intraoperative anesthetic monitoring
data, or level of training of the veterinarian performing
the herniorrhaphy was associated with mortality
rate after surgical repair of traumatic diaphragmatic
hernia in cats.
Procedure—Review of medical records and a telephone
follow-up with owners and referring veterinarians
Results—Mean age of affected cats was 3.6 years;
cats that survived to the time of discharge were significantly
younger than cats that died or were euthanatized.
Tachypnea was the most common clinical
sign at hospital admission; cats that survived to the
time of discharge had significantly higher respiratory
rates than cats that died or were euthanatized after
surgery. Postoperative complications developed in
50% of cats; tachypnea and dyspnea were most
common. Mortality rate was not associated with
duration of hernia or results of preoperative CBC and
serum biochemical analyses, but was significantly
associated with concurrent injuries. Mortality rate
was not associated with hernia contents, intraoperative
use of positive inotropes or corticosteroids,
episodes of hypotension or severe hypoxia during
anesthesia, or level of training of the veterinarian performing
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats that are
older or have low to mildly increased respiratory rates
and concurrent injuries are more likely to die after surgical
repair of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1237–1240)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma.
ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration.
RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.
To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM).
12 dogs (96 blood samples).
A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal.
Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.
Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 3
groups of 6: control, tenectomy, and onychectomy.
Jugular catheters were placed the day prior to
surgery. All surgeries were performed by the same
surgeon, and all observations were made by the
same blinded trained observer. One hour prior to
surgery and at assigned intervals for 36 hours after
surgery, heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature
were measured. Scores were assigned for 3
interaction responses, including response to palpation,
by use of simple descriptive scales, and to 2 pain
assessments by use of visual analogue scales. Blood
was collected to measure plasma β-endorphin and
cortisol concentrations. Butorphanol was administered
to all cats before surgery and to any cat subjectively
assessed to be experiencing pain after surgery.
Results—Only visual analogue scale scores and
response to palpation scores differed significantly
between control and surgical groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Determination
of the presence of pain in cats can be made
on the basis of observation and interaction by a
trained observer. Physiologic measurements, including
plasma cortisol and β-endorphin concentrations,
did not differentiate between control cats and cats
that underwent surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;
Objective—To compare the effectiveness of preoperative
PO and SC administration of buprenorphine and
meloxicam for prevention of postoperative pain-associated
behaviors in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Design—Randomized controlled study.
Animals—51 female cats (4 to 60 months old; weight
range, 1.41 to 4.73 kg [3.1 to 10.4 lb]).
Procedure—Cats received 1 of 5 treatments at the time
of anesthetic induction: buprenorphine PO (0.01 mg/kg
[0.0045 mg/lb]; n = 10), buprenorphine SC (0.01 mg/kg;
10), meloxicam SC (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb]; 10), meloxicam
PO (0.3 mg/kg; 10), or 0.3 mL of sterile saline (0.9%
NaCl) solution SC (control group; 11). Sedation scores
and visual analog scale and interactive visual analog
scale (IVAS) pain-associated behavior scores were
assigned to each cat 2 hours before and at intervals until
20 hours after surgery.
Results—Cats receiving meloxicam PO or SC had
significantly lower IVAS scores (2.91 and 2.02,
respectively), compared with IVAS scores for cats
receiving buprenorphine PO (7.55). Pain-associated
behavior scores for cats administered buprenorphine
or meloxicam PO or SC preoperatively did not differ
significantly from control group scores. Rescue analgesia
was not required by any of the cats receiving
meloxicam, whereas 3 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine
PO, 2 of 10 cats receiving buprenorphine SC,
and 1 of 11 cats receiving the control treatment
required rescue analgesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis
of pain-associated behavior scores, cats receiving
meloxicam PO or SC before ovariohysterectomy
appeared to have less pain after surgery than those
receiving buprenorphine PO preoperatively. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1937–1944)