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Abstract

Objective—To identify the most common causes of pneumoperitoneum in dogs and cats and determine history, clinical features, and outcome of affected animals.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—31 dogs and 8 cats.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment; history; abnormal physical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic findings; results of cytologic analysis and bacterial culture of abdominal fluid; gross and histologic findings at surgery or necropsy; and outcome.

Results—Pneumoperitoneum was classified as spontaneous in 25 animals and traumatic in 14. Causes of traumatic pneumoperitoneum included vehicular impact, gunshot wounds, abdominal dog bite wounds, and iatrogenic pneumothorax. Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum was caused by gastrointestinal tract perforation in 23 animals; underlying causes included neoplasia, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, and corticosteroid administration. Two animals developed spontaneous pneumoperitoneum after bladder rupture. Animals with spontaneous pneumoperitoneum were significantly older and had clinical signs of longer duration than those with traumatic pneumoperitoneum. Sixteen animals survived, including 15 of 23 animals that underwent surgery. Animals that survived had significantly higher serum albumin concentrations than did animals that died or were euthanatized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although pneumoperitoneum is most often attributable to perforation of a hollow viscus, other causes do exist. Early exploration is recommended for diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:462–468)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine postoperative (≤ 6 days), short-term (≤ 90 days), and long-term (≥ 6 months) outcomes of cats undergoing ameroid constrictor occlusion of single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSS) and identify factors associated with outcome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—12 cats.

Procedure—Cats with single congenital PSS that underwent surgical placement of ameroid constrictors were identified. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone interviews and facsimile correspondence with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results—All cats survived the surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat had seizures during the postoperative period. Five cats were clinically normal during follow-up evaluations within 90 days after the surgery. Long-term follow-up information was available for 9 cats. Three were clinically normal, 4 had been euthanatized because of progressive neurologic disease, and 2 had neurologic abnormalities that could not be controlled with medication. Four of 7 cats with continued or recurrent neurologic abnormalities 1 or more months after surgery had normal scintigraphic or hepatic function test results 2 to 6 months after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the long-term outcome of ameroid constrictor occlusion of PSS in cats is poor. Owners of older cats and cats with preexisting neurologic signs should be made aware of the potential for a poor outcome when considering surgical correction of this disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:337–341)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the annual and overall proportion of diagnoses of congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs and identify breeds at increased risk for CPSS.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—2,400 dogs with CPSS from veterinary teaching hospitals that reported to the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) from January 1, 1980 to February 28, 2002.

Procedure—The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS was calculated for all dogs and each breed recorded in the VMDB annually and for the 22.2-year period. Odds ratios and adjusted confidence intervals were calculated for breeds with at least 100 accessions by comparing odds of each breed with a diagnosis of CPSS with that of mixed-breed dogs.

Results—Congenital portosystemic shunts were reported in 0.18% of all dogs and 0.05% of mixedbreed dogs. The proportion of diagnoses of CPSS increased from 5 in 10,000 dogs in 1980 to 5 in 1,000 dogs in 2001. Yorkshire Terriers had the greatest total number of diagnoses of CPSS. Thirty-three breeds were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of CPSS, compared with mixed-breed dogs. The greatest proportions of diagnoses were found in Havanese (3.2%), Yorkshire Terriers (2.9%), Maltese (1.6%), Dandie Dinmont Terriers (1.6%), and Pugs (1.3%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Certain breeds appear to be at increased risk for CPSS, compared with mixed-breed dogs. The increased odds ratios among specific breeds support the hypothesis of a genetic predisposition for CPSS. Clients and veterinarians should consider appropriate diagnostic tests for dogs with clinical signs and those used for breeding from breeds with increased risk of CPSS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1636–1639)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To assees the relationship of WBC counts and partial oxygen tension in the portal vein and caudal vena cava with portal bacteremia, bacteria in the liver, and postoperative morbidity and mortality in dogs with portosystemic shunts.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

12 clinically normal dogs and 15 dogs with single congenital portosystemic shunts.

Procedure

Blood was collected from the portal vein and caudal vena cava for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture, WBC count, and measurement of partial oxygen tension. Samples of liver tissue, indwelling catheters, and fluids administered IV were also obtained for bacterial culture.

Results

Bacteria were cultured from samples obtained from the portal vein and caudal vena cava of 1 dog with a shunt and from the caudal vena cava of 1 clinically normal dog; neither dog had postoperative complications. In dogs with shunts and in clinically normal dogs, partial oxygen tension in the portal vein was significantly greater than that in the caudal vena cava. Postoperative complications were identified in 33% of dogs with shunts. Partial oxygen tensions of dogs with shunts with postoperative complications did not significantly differ from those of all dogs with shunts or dogs with shunts without complications. Significant differences in WBC counts were not found when comparing dogs with shunts with and without complications. Anaerobic bacteria were not cultured from the liver of any dog.

Clinical Implications

Leukocytosis, portal bacteremia, and portal hypoxemia were not notable findings in dogs with shunts and were not correlated with postoperative morbidity or mortality. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:715–718)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether signalment, duration of hernia, clinical signs, contents of hernia, CBC and serum biochemical abnormalities, concurrent injuries, perioperative treatment and administration of analgesics, results of intraoperative anesthetic monitoring data, or level of training of the veterinarian performing the herniorrhaphy was associated with mortality rate after surgical repair of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—34 cats.

Procedure—Review of medical records and a telephone follow-up with owners and referring veterinarians were performed.

Results—Mean age of affected cats was 3.6 years; cats that survived to the time of discharge were significantly younger than cats that died or were euthanatized. Tachypnea was the most common clinical sign at hospital admission; cats that survived to the time of discharge had significantly higher respiratory rates than cats that died or were euthanatized after surgery. Postoperative complications developed in 50% of cats; tachypnea and dyspnea were most common. Mortality rate was not associated with duration of hernia or results of preoperative CBC and serum biochemical analyses, but was significantly associated with concurrent injuries. Mortality rate was not associated with hernia contents, intraoperative use of positive inotropes or corticosteroids, episodes of hypotension or severe hypoxia during anesthesia, or level of training of the veterinarian performing the surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cats that are older or have low to mildly increased respiratory rates and concurrent injuries are more likely to die after surgical repair of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1237–1240)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the ability of various subjective and objective measurements to determine the presence and degree of postoperative pain in cats.

Design—Randomized controlled prospective clinical study.

Animals—18 healthy client-owned cats.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 6: control, tenectomy, and onychectomy. Jugular catheters were placed the day prior to surgery. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon, and all observations were made by the same blinded trained observer. One hour prior to surgery and at assigned intervals for 36 hours after surgery, heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were measured. Scores were assigned for 3 interaction responses, including response to palpation, by use of simple descriptive scales, and to 2 pain assessments by use of visual analogue scales. Blood was collected to measure plasma β-endorphin and cortisol concentrations. Butorphanol was administered to all cats before surgery and to any cat subjectively assessed to be experiencing pain after surgery.

Results—Only visual analogue scale scores and response to palpation scores differed significantly between control and surgical groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Determination of the presence of pain in cats can be made on the basis of observation and interaction by a trained observer. Physiologic measurements, including plasma cortisol and β-endorphin concentrations, did not differentiate between control cats and cats that underwent surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 217:685–690)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma.

ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration.

RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research