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  • Author or Editor: Karen M. Park x
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To describe methods to measure the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of the canine radius by use of computer-aided design software (CADS) and to compare the repeatability and reliability of measurements derived by those methods.


31 canine radii with biapical deformities and 24 clinically normal (control) canine radii.


Select CT scans of radii were imported into a CADS program. Cartesian coordinate systems for the humerus and proximal, diaphyseal, and distal radial segments were developed. The orientation of each radial segment in the frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes was measured in triplicate by 3 methods. The repeatability and reliability of those measurements were calculated and compared among the 3 measurement methods.


The mean ± SD within-subject repeatability of radial angular measurements for all 3 methods was 1.40 ± 0.67° in the frontal plane, 3.17 ± 2.21° in the sagittal plane, and 3.01 ± 1.11° in the transverse plane for control radii and 2.56 ± 1.95° in the frontal plane, 3.59 ± 2.39° in the sagittal plane, and 3.47 ± 1.19° in the transverse plane for abnormal radii. Mean ± SD bias between radial measurement methods was 1.88 ± 2.07° in the frontal plane, 6.44 ± 6.80° in the sagittal plane, and 2.27 ± 2.81° in the transverse plane.


Results indicated that use of CADS to assess the 3-D orientation of the proximal, diaphyseal, and distal segments of normal and abnormal canine radii yielded highly repeatable and reliable measurements.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To report and evaluate risk factors for conversion and perioperative and long-term outcomes in dogs undergoing thoracoscopic lung lobectomy for resection of lung masses.


61 client-owned dogs.


This retrospective cohort study (June 11, 2008, to February 14, 2020) of data collected from medical records included signalment, results of diagnostic imaging, surgical technique, surgical and anesthesia time, mass location and size, hospitalization time, histopathologic findings, and long-term outcome. Follow-up was obtained from medical records and telephone contact with owners or referring veterinarians.


Histopathology results were available for 60 of 61 tumors. Fifty-seven (95%) were considered primary lung tumors, of which 46 (81%) were carcinomas. Clean surgical margins were achieved in 46 of 52 (88%) dogs. Conversion from thoracoscopy to thoracoscopic-assisted or open surgery occurred in 16 of 61 (26%) dogs. Larger tumor diameter (≥ 5 cm) and lymphadenopathy detected by preoperative CT scan were significantly associated with increased risk of conversion. There was no association between conversion and patient weight, body condition score, and tumor location. All 61 dogs survived to discharge, and 56 of 57 were alive 1 month postoperatively. Median overall survival time was 311 days (95% CI, 224 to 570 days). Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy on preoperative CT scans was associated with shorter postoperative survival (P < .001). Patient age, tumor diameter, adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery, and incomplete margins were not associated with survival time.


Dogs had high survival to discharge and good long-term prognosis following thoracoscopic lung lobectomy. However, larger tumor size and tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy may increase the likelihood of conversion.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association