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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To characterize clinical features, comorbidities, frequency of bacterial isolation, and survival time in cats with suppurative cholangitis-cholangiohepatitis syndrome (S-CCHS).


168 client-owned cats with S-CCHS.


Data were prospectively (1980 to 2019) collected regarding clinical features, comorbidities, bacterial infection, illness duration, and treatments. Variables were evaluated for associations with survival time.


Median age of cats was 10.0 years, with no breed or sex predilection observed. Common clinical features included hyporexia (82%), hyperbilirubinemia (80%), lethargy (80%), vomiting (80%), jaundice (67%), weight loss (54%), and hypoalbuminemia (50%). Comorbidities included extrahepatic bile duct obstruction (53%), cholelithiasis (42%), cholecystitis (40%), and ductal plate malformation (44%) as well as biopsy-confirmed inflammatory bowel disease (60/68 [88%]) and pancreatitis (41/44 [93%]). Bacterial cultures were commonly positive (69%) despite prebiopsy antimicrobial administration in most cats. Of surgically confirmed choleliths, diagnostic imaging identified only 58%. Among 55 cats with “idiopathic pancreatitis,” 28 (51%) were documented to have transiting choleliths, and 20 had pancreatic biopsies confirming pancreatitis. Cholelithiasis (with or without bile duct obstruction) and cholecystectomy were associated with survival advantages. Survival disadvantages were found for leukocytosis, ≥ 2-fold increased alkaline phosphatase, and hyperbilirubinemia. Cholecystoenterostomy had no survival impact. Cats with ductal plate malformations were significantly younger at diagnosis and death than other cats. Chronic treatments with antimicrobials, S-adenosylmethionine, and ursodeoxycholic acid were common postbiopsy.


S-CCHS in cats was associated with bacterial infection and various comorbidities and may be confused with pancreatitis. Surgically correctable morbidities (ie, cholecystitis, cholecystocholelithiasis) and cholecystectomy provided a significant survival advantage.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


A study was conducted to identify the clinical signs associated with impaction of the proventriculus in ostriches, to identify diagnostic aids, and to develop a surgical procedure for management of the disorder. Clinical signs indicating the need for surgical intervention included chronic inappetance, a change in fecal consistency or production, dehydration, weight loss, and failure to respond to laxatives. Diagnosis of impacted proventriculus was by abdominal radiography and external palpation. Impactions were caused by sand and rocks (5 ostriches), hay and sand (1 ostrich), and leaves (1 ostrich). After surgery, 5 of the ostriches were clinically normal within (mean) 1 week. One ostrich failed to regain a normal appetite until 2 weeks after surgery, and one juvenile ostrich died after surgery. Of the 6 ostriches that survived, 1 died 1 week after discharge from the hospital. The remaining birds survived without redevelopment of impaction.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine whether heifers with naturally acquired congenital exposure to Neospora sp would transmit the infection to their offspring during gestation.


Prospective cohort study.


Neonatal heifers on a dairy with a history of Neospora sp infections were selected for the study on the basis of their serum titers to Neospora sp, as determined by the use of indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Seropositive heifers (n = 25) had titers ≥ 1:5,120 and seronegative heifers (25) had titers ≤ 1:80. All heifers were raised and bred on the dairy, and samples were obtained from heifers and their calves at the time of calving.


Blood samples were tested for Neospora sp antibodies. Histologic evaluations, Neospora sp immunohistochemical examinations. and protozoal culturing were performed on samples obtained from selected offspring (second-generation calves).


Seropositive heifers gave birth to calves with titers ≥ 1:1,280 to Neospora sp. All offspring from seropositive heifers that were necropsied had evidence of Neospora sp infection. All seronegative heifers and their offspring had titers < 1:80 to Neospora sp.

Clinical Implications—

Congenitally acquired Neospora sp infection can persist in clinically normal heifers and be transmitted transplacentally to their offspring. Vertical transmission can be a way by which neosporosis is maintained in herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1169–1172)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Four dairy cows that had been successfully rebred following fetal Neospora infection and abortion were identified from 2 drylot dairies. All 4 cows had uncomplicated pregnancies with the birth of 5 full-term calves. The calves all had high precolostral serum IgG antibodies. The precolostral antibodies to Neospora sp as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody test ranged from 5,120 to 20,480, compared with maternal serum and colostral antibody titers from 320 to 1,280. Two calves had mild neurologic limb deficits. Three calves had mild nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis and Neospora organisms were found in the CNS of 3 calves. Findings indicate that repeat transplacental Neospora infections occur in cows. Additionally, calves born from cows with a history of Neospora fetal infection and abortion may have congenital Neospora infections and/or neurologic dysfunctions at birth. The Neospora indirect fluorescent antibody test appears to be a useful antemortem test for detection of calves exposed in utero to Neospora organisms.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the duration of fecal shedding of and serologic response to Salmonella spp after natural infection in dairy calves and characterize Salmonella organisms recovered from these herds.

Design—Longitudinal study.

Animals—Calves from 2 dairy herds (A and B) in the northeast United States that were identified at the beginning of a Salmonella outbreak.

Procedures—Fecal samples were collected twice per week (herd A) or once per week (herd B); blood samples were collected for serologic testing once per week in both herds. Bacteriologic culture of fecal samples was performed, and Salmonella isolates were characterized by serotype, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, and antimicrobial resistance profile.

Results—All Salmonella isolates from herd A were serovar Typhimurium var Copenhagen, had the same PFGE pattern, and were resistant to at least 9 antimicrobials. All isolates from herd B were Salmonella Typhimurium, represented 2 PFGE patterns, and were susceptible to all antimicrobials evaluated. The estimated duration of fecal shedding was 14 days in herd A and 9 days in herd B. Few calves were seropositive for antibody against Salmonella lipopolysaccharide within the first week after birth (0 of 20 in herd A and 13 of 79 in herd B) or seroconverted (6 in herd A and 4 in herd B). Fecal shedding was more common in calves that seroconverted, but overall, there was not a strong association between seropositivity and fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although the herds differed in serologic response and Salmonella subtype, the duration of fecal shedding among calves was similar between herds.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association