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Objective—To compare pathologic changes of the horizontal ear canal associated with chronic severe otitis externa between Cocker Spaniels and dogs of other breeds.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—80 dogs with severe otitis externa that required total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for breed, sex, and age at time of surgery. Histologic specimens from the horizontal ear canal were evaluated by a single examiner for overall tissue response pattern and scored for sebaceous gland hyperplasia, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, ceruminous gland ectasia, fibrosis, pigment-laden macrophages, and osseous metaplasia.

Results—48 of 80 (60%) dogs were Cocker Spaniels. Thirty-five of 48 (72.9%) Cocker Spaniels had a predominately ceruminous tissue response pattern; only 9 of 32 (28.1%) dogs of other breeds had the same pattern. Other breeds most commonly had a pattern dominated by fibrosis (n = 13 [40.6%]); fibrosis was the predominant pattern in only 4 of 48 (8.3%) Cocker Spaniels. Discriminant analysis and K-means clustering of 4 histopathologic criteria correctly classified 75% of the dogs as Cocker Spaniels or all other breeds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cocker Spaniels are at increased risk for chronic severe otitis externa requiring total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy, indicating that earlier and more aggressive management of the primary otitis externa and secondary inflammation is warranted in this breed. Cocker Spaniels with chronic severe otitis externa have distinct differences in pathologic characteristics of the horizontal ear canal, compared with other breeds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 1000–1006)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.

ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females).

PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.

RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine long-term outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes in dogs with gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI).


36 dogs with GEI evaluated at 16 veterinary hospitals from January 2000 through January 2018.


Medical records of included dogs were reviewed to collect information regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, blood work and diagnostic imaging results, surgical findings, and outcome. Factors were evaluated for associations with various outcomes.


Median age of dogs with GEI was 13.2 months, and males (72% [26/36]) and German Shepherd Dogs (33% [12/36]) were most common. Vomiting (67% [24/36]) and regurgitation (33% [12/36]) were the most common clinical signs. Ten of 36 (28%) dogs were euthanized without treatment, and 26 (72%) underwent treatment (25 surgically and 1 endoscopically). Twenty-three of the 26 (88%) treated dogs survived to discharge; median survival time was 995 days. At last follow-up, 15 of the 23 (65%) surviving dogs remained alive and 8 (35%) had died for reasons related to persistent regurgitation (n = 6) or reasons unrelated to GEI (2). Of the 10 dogs for which owners were contacted, 7 had persistent regurgitation, the severity of which was reduced through managed feedings. Dogs with acute (≤ 7 days) clinical signs or a previous diagnosis of megaesophagus were more likely to have persistent regurgitation than were dogs without these factors.


Treatment should be considered for dogs with GEI given the high rate of survival to discharge and median survival time. Although persistent regurgitation was common after treatment, a satisfactory outcome was possible with medical management, including managed feedings and medications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine nonenteric sites associated with Escherichia coli isolates in dogs and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates.

Design—Retrospective study.

Sample Population—17,000 canine specimens.

Procedure—Medical records of 17,000 canine specimens submitted for bacteriologic culture were examined and the number of isolations of E coli was determined. For these cases, records were further examined with respect to body system involvement, sex, concurrent infection with other species of bacteria, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

Results—674 E coli isolates (424 from urine, 62 from the skin, 52 from the respiratory tract, 45 from the ear, 43 from the female reproductive tract, 25 from the male reproductive tract, and 23 from other organ systems) were identified. There was a significantly higher proportion of isolates from urine specimens from spayed females than from sexually intact females or males. Escherichia coli was isolated in pure culture from 65.9% of the specimens. Most E coli isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin (90%), enrofloxacin (87.5%), gentamicin (90.7%), and amikacin (85.9%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most nonenteric E coli infections in dogs involve the urinary tract. Amikacin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and enrofloxacin have the highest efficacy against canine E coli isolates. For E coli isolates from dogs, in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents has remained fairly stable during the past decade. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:381–384)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association