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Abstract

Objective

To describe alterations in respiratory and cardiovascular variables during diagnostic thoracoscopy, using bilateral hemithorax ventilation with sustained pneumothorax.

Animals

7 adult dogs.

Procedure

Each dog was anesthetized and instrumented for 2 episodes of cardiopulmonary monitoring that were performed at an interval of more than 14 days. The first anesthetic episode served as a control procedure for the thoracoscopy treatment performed during the second anesthetic episode. Multiple cardiopulmonary variables were evaluated by comparing changes from baseline values within treatments and between treatments.

Results

Arterial oxygen tension decreased significantly from baseline values during thoracoscopy but was unchanged during sham treatment. Arterial carbon dioxide tension, clinical shunt fraction, and systemic mean arterial pressure increased during thoracoscopy. In contrast, these variables were unaffected by the sham treatment. Heart rate and cardiac index increased during sham and thoracoscopy treatments; however, the increase was significantly greater during thoracoscopy. Total peripheral vascular resistance significantly decreased from baseline values for both treatments, but the decrease was greater during thoracoscopy. Significant changes were not observed for oxyhemoglobin saturation or pulmonary vascular resistance during either treatment. Dogs recovered without major clinical complications.

Conclusions

Significant changes were found for several cardiopulmonary variables during bilateral hemithorax ventilation with sustained pneumothorax for diagnostic thoracoscopy of clinically normal dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Diagnostic thoracoscopy with bilateral hemithorax ventilation and sustained pneumothorax is well tolerated in clinically normal dogs and may provide a diagnostic modality enabling intrathoracic procedures with less morbidity than thoracotomy for dogs with intrathoracic disease. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1494–1498)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether lung biopsy specimens obtained during thoracoscopy, using a commercially available ligature, can provide an adequate amount of tissue for histologic evaluation and to characterize changes in the lungs and thoracic cavity that result from the procedure.

Animals

6 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

All dogs underwent 2 anesthetic episodes. The first anesthetic episode was a sham procedure. During the second anesthetic episode, each dog underwent a thoracoscopic procedure to obtain a lung biopsy specimen, using a commercially available ligature. Biopsy specimens were assessed subjectively by means of histologic evaluation. Samples for arterial blood gas analysis were obtained, and thoracic radiography was performed after surgery. Dogs were evaluated daily for 14 days after thoracoscopy and then were euthanatized. Tissues were evaluated grossly and histologically.

Results

Excellent intraoperative visibility and biopsy specimens adequate for histologic evaluation were obtained from all dogs. Significant differences were not found between arterial blood gas values of sham- and thoracoscopy-treated dogs for samples obtained 0.25, 2, and 24 hours after extubation. Examination of thoracic radiographs obtained 2 and 24 hours after thoracoscopy revealed minimal localized pathologic changes. All dogs were clinically normal 24 hours after thoracoscopy, and major postoperative complications were not detected. Gross and histologic findings of specimens obtained during necropsy revealed changes localized to biopsy and trocar sites.

Conclusions

Thoracoscopic placement of ligatures allowed procurement of lung lobe biopsy specimens from clinically normal dogs without complications.

Clinical Relevance

This procedure may provide a safe and minimally invasive means of obtaining lung biopsy specimens from clinically affected dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1499–1502)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine incidence rates and potential risk factors for vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAEs) diagnosed within 3 days of administration in dogs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—1,226,159 dogs vaccinated at 360 veterinary hospitals.

Procedure—Electronic records from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003, were searched for possible VAAEs (nonspecific vaccine reaction, allergic reaction, urticaria, or anaphylaxis) diagnosed within 3 days of vaccine administration. Information included age, weight, sex, neuter status, and breed. Specific clinical signs and treatments were reviewed in a random sample of 400 affected dogs. The association between potential risk factors and a VAAE was estimated by use of multivariate logistic regression.

Results—4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs vaccinated) were associated with administration of 3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs. The VAAE rate decreased significantly as body weight increased. Risk was 27% to 38% greater for neutered versus sexually intact dogs and 35% to 64% greater for dogs approximately 1 to 3 years old versus 2 to 9 months old. The risk of a VAAE significantly increased as the number of vaccine doses administered per office visit increased; each additional vaccine significantly increased risk of an adverse event by 27% in dogs ≤ 10 kg (22 lb) and 12% in dogs > 10 kg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE within 72 hours after vaccination. These factors should be considered in risk assessment and risk communication with clients regarding vaccination. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1102–1108)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association