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Objective

To identify factors associated with various arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) in anesthetized horses.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

1,450 horses anesthetized a total of 1,610 times with isoflurane or halothane.

Procedure

Anesthesia records, particularly results of blood gas analyses, were reviewed, and horses were grouped on the basis of lowest Pao2.

Results

For horses with lowest Pao2 < 120 mm Hg, those with low pulse pressure, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, or that were males were more likely to have Pao2 < 80 mm Hg. For horses with lowest Pao22 < 250 mm Hg, those that were positioned in dorsal recumbency, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, or that had a shorter duration of anesthesia were more likely to have lowest Pao2 < 120 mm Hg. For horses with lowest PaO2 < 400 mm Hg, those that were positioned in dorsal recumbency, that underwent anesthesia on an emergency basis, that had a shorter duration of anesthesia, that were older, that were heavier, or that were being ventilated mechanically were more likely to have lowest Pao2 < 250 mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Low pulse pressure, emergency case status, dorsal recumbency, and short duration of anesthesia were significantly related with lower Pao2 in anesthetized horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:978–981)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To study the effects of inhalation anesthetic agents on the response of horses to 3 hours of hypoxemia.

Design

Controlled crossover study.

Animals

Five healthy adult horses.

Procedure

Horses were anesthetized twice: once with halothane, and once with isoflurane in O2. Anesthetized horses were positioned in left lateral recumbency. Constant conditions for the study began at 2 hours of anesthesia. A constant agent dose of 1.2 minimum alveolar concentration, PaO2 of 50 ± 5 mm of Hg, and PaCO2 of 45 ± 5 mm of Hg were maintained for 3 hours. Circulatory measurements were made at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours of hypoxemia (anesthesia hours 2.5, 3, 4, and 5). Blood was collected from horses for biochemical analyses before anesthesia, within a few minutes after standing, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 days after anesthesia.

Results

Cardiac index was greater (P = 0.018) during isoflurane than halothane anesthesia. Cardiac index remained constant during the 3 hours of hypoxemia during halothane anesthesia, whereas it decreased from the baseline during isoflurane anesthesia. Marginally nonsignificant P values for an agent difference were detected for arterial O2 content (P = 0.051), and oxygen delivery (P = 0.057). Serum activities of aspartate transaminase (P = 0.050) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (P = 0.017) were higher in halothane-anesthetized horses than in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Circulatory function was better in hypoxemic horses anesthetized with isoflurane than with halothane. Isoflurane resulted in less muscular injury in hypoxemia horses than did halothane anesthesia. Halothane anesthesia and hypoxemia were associated with hepatic insult.

Conclusion

Isoflurane is better than halothane for hypoxemic horses.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:351-360)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To study behavioral and cardiopulmonary characteristics of horses recovering from inhalation anesthesia, 6 nonmedicated horses were anesthetized under laboratory conditions on 3 different days, with either halothane or isoflurane in O2. Anesthesia was maintained at constant dose (1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration [mac]) of halothane in O2 for 1 hour (H1), halothane in O2 for 3 hours (H3), or isoflurane in O2 for 3 hours (I3). The order of exposure was set up as a pair of Latin squares to account for horse and trial effects. Circulatory (arterial blood pressure and heart rate) and respiratory (frequency, PaCO2 , PaO2 , pHa) variables were monitored during anesthesia and for as long as possible during the recovery period. End-tidal percentage of the inhaled agent was measured every 15 seconds by automated mass spectrometry, then by hand-sampling after horses started moving. Times of recovery events, including movement of the eyelids, ears, head, and limbs, head lift, chewing, swallowing, first sternal posture and stand attempts, and the number of sternal posture and stand attempts, were recorded.

The washout curve or the et ratio (end-tidal percentage of the inhaled agent at time t to end-tidal percentage of the inhaled agent at the time the anesthesia circuit was disconnected from the tracheal tube) plotted against time was similar for H1 and H3. The slower, then faster (compared with halothane groups) washout curve of isoflurane was explainable by changes in respiratory frequency as horses awakened and by lower blood/gas solubility of isoflurane. The respiratory depressant effects of isoflurane were marked and were more progressive than those for halothane at the same 1.5 mac dose. During the first 15 minutes of recovery, respiratory frequency for group-I3 horses increased significantly (P < 0.05), compared with that for the halothane groups. For all groups, arterial blood pressure increased throughout the early recovery period and heart rate remained constant.

Preanesthesia temperament of horses and the inhalation agent used did not influence the time of the early recovery events (movement of eyelids, ears, head, and limbs), except for head lift. For events that occurred at anesthetic end-tidal percentage < 0.20, or when horses were awake, temperament was the only factor that significantly influenced the nature of the recovery (chewing P = 0.04, extubation P = 0.001, first stand attempt P = 0.008, and standing P = 0.005). The quality of the recoveries did not differ significantly among groups (H1, H3, I3) or horses; however 5 of 6 horses recovering from the H1 exposure had ideal recovery. During recovery, the anesthetic end-tidal percentage did not differ significantly among groups. However, when concentrations were compared on the basis of anesthetic potency (ie, mac multiple) a significantly (P < 0.05) lower MAC multiple of isoflurane was measured for the events ear movement, limb movement, head lift, and first attempt to sternal posture, compared with that for horses given halothane, indicating that isoflurane may be a more-potent sedative than halothane in these horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research