Case Description—A 22-year-old American Paint Horse gelding from the Gulf Coast region of Texas was evaluated for regrowth of a perirectal squamous cell carcinoma that had been surgically removed 11 months previously.
Clinical Findings—A necrotic and ulcerated mass was present below the anus. The horse had paraphimosis and was having difficulty with urination. Histologic examination of the mass revealed that it was squamous cell carcinoma, and the horse was euthanized because of the unlikelihood that the mass could be adequately resected and its close proximity to the urethra.
Outcome—At necropsy, in addition to the squamous cell carcinoma, hundreds of round, white to pale yellow nodules were disseminated throughout the liver, resulting in a so-called starry-sky appearance. Similar granulomas were seen in the right caudal lung lobe and small intestinal serosa. A single granuloma in the liver, which differed from the others by its larger size, contained a pair of adult schistosomes. Several hepatic granuloma specimens were used for PCR amplification and sequencing. Use of primers specific for a portion of the Heterobilharzia americana small subunit rRNA gene resulted in amplification of a 487-base pair product that had 100% sequence identity with H americana.
Clinical Relevance—Severe cases of disseminated granulomas in the liver of horses may result in a liver with a grossly abnormal starry-sky pattern. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the association of granulomas with H americana infection along with adult schistosomes in the liver of a horse.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old castrated male dog residing in Indiana was examined because of intermittent vomiting of 4 months' duration.
CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog's condition did not resolve with medication. Diagnostic imaging revealed a possible partial obstruction at the ileocecal junction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. The jejunum contained diffusely distributed, nodular, intramural lesions; 2 biopsy specimens were collected from representative lesions. The pancreas was grossly swollen, and pancreatitis was presumed present. No other abnormalities were observed in the abdomen. Histologic examination of the submitted biopsy specimens revealed infection with Heterobilharzia americana.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME After diagnosis, the dog was treated with fenbendazole suspension (48 mg/kg [21.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 10 days. This treatment was subsequently repeated 11 and 80 days later. One week after the end of the last fenbendazole treatment, several H americana eggs were detected in a fecal sample via saline sedimentation, and the dog was given praziquantel (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 2 days. No gastrointestinal signs were evident 4 months after that treatment.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dog described in this report was the first autochthonous canine case of H americana infection in Indiana, to the authors' knowledge; this case has confirmed that the distribution of this parasite in the Midwestern United States is broader than previously known. Increased awareness of the distribution of H americana should aid veterinarians in early, noninvasive diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected animals. Repeated treatments and recheck fecal examinations may be necessary when managing these cases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:827–830)
Objective—To determine the effects of serologic status
for Neospora caninumon short-term weight gain,
feed intake, and feed efficiency (feed intake/gain).
Design—Longitudinal observational study.
Animals—34 weaned mixed-breed beef steers.
Procedure—Serologic status for N caninum was
determined for each steer on days 0 (weaning), 88,
116, 144, 172, and 200, using an agglutination test.
Individual steer body weight was measured on days
0, 88, 116, 144, 172, 200, and 242 (slaughter). Daily
feed intake was monitored from days 116 through
242. Serologic status was matched to animal performance
for the period immediately following serum
sample collection. A mixed mode, using repeatedmeasures
with an unstructured covariance matrix,
was used in the analysis. Breed, age, and pen effects
were controlled for in the analysis.
Results—A reduction in average daily gain for the
period following a positive serologic result was
detected for the entire trial (6 measurements/steer).
This may have been attributed to a significant impairment
in feed efficiency rather than to an impairment
in feed intake. Changes in serologic status in individual
steers over time were common; additionally, the
effects of serologic status on steer performance were
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant
reductions in short-term weight gain and feed efficiency
were associated with the presence of antibodies
against N caninumin postweaning beef steers. (J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1259–1262)