To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM).
12 dogs (96 blood samples).
A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal.
Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.
Objective—To evaluate temporal changes in bone
mineral density associated with seasonal variation in
serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations
Animals—5 healthy mature neutered male alpacas.
Procedure—Metacarpal bone mineral density was
measured at 4 times during a year. Each time alpacas
were weighed, blood was collected for determination
of serum calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D concentrations,
and samples of feed were analyzed for
nutrient content. Vitamin D status was determined by
use of an assay that measured serum 25-hydroxycalciferol
concentration. Effects of changes in serum vitamin
D, calcium, and phosphorus concentration and
body weight with season on bone mineral density
Results—Bone mineral density, body weight, and
serum vitamin D and phosphorus concentrations varied
with season. Bone mineral density, serum vitamin
D concentration, and body weight also varied
among individual alpacas. Serum vitamin D concentration
was lower in January than the previous
October and increased from May to the following
September. The decrease in bone mineral density
lagged behind the decrease in serum vitamin D concentration
and was lower in May, compared with the
previous October. Body weight was lower in May
than the previous October or following September.
Solar radiation was highest in July and lowest in
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seasonal
changes in bone mineral density are associated with
changes in serum vitamin D concentrations in
alpacas. Changes in bone mineral density associated
with a decline in serum vitamin D concentration may
predispose some alpacas to developing fractures
minimal trauma. (Am J Vet Res 2002;
Objective—To compare isolates of Rhodococcus
equi on the basis of geographic source and virulence
status by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis
Sample Population—290 isolates of R equi(218 virulent
isolates from foals and 72 avirulent isolates from
feces, soil, and respiratory tract samples) obtained
between 1985 and 2000 from horses and horse farms
from 4 countries.
Procedure—DNA from isolates was digested with
the restriction enzyme AseI and tested by use of
PFGE. Products were analyzed for similarities in banding
patterns by use of dendrograms. A similarity
matrix was constructed for isolates, and the matrix
was tested for nonrandom distributions of similarity
values with respect to groupings of interest.
Results—There was little grouping of isolates on the
basis of country, virulence status, or region within
Texas. Isolates of R equi were generally < 80% similar,
as determined by use of PFGE. Isolates from the
same farm generally were rarely of the same strain.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Considerable
chromosomal variability exists among isolates of R
equi obtained from the same farm, sites within Texas,
or among countries from various continents. Only
rarely will it be possible to link infections to a given
site or region on the basis of analysis of isolates by
use of PFGE of chromosomal DNA. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:153–161)