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  • Author or Editor: Karen D. Inzana x
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Abstract

Objective—To characterize matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in CSF of clinically normal dogs.

Sample Population—Samples of CSF collected from 23 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, CSF samples were collected, and dogs were then euthanatized. Each CSF sample was evaluated immediately for RBC count, WBC count, and protein and glucose concentrations, and cytologic examination also was performed. Samples were considered normal when protein concentration was < 25 mg/dL and CSF contained < 6 WBCs/μL and < 25 RBCs/μL. Samples were stored at –70°C. Sections of brain tissue were collected and processed for histologic examination. The MMPs were evaluated by use of gelatin zymography and a polyclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.

Results—Mean WBC count for CSF samples was < 1 WBC/μL (range, 0 to 3 WBCs/mL). Mean protein concentration was 12 mg/dL (range, 8 to 17 mg/dL). Mean RBC count was 3.65 RBCs/μL (range, 0 to 21 RBCs/μL). All CSF samples generated a clear band on zymography gels that corresponded to the human commercial standard of proenzyme MMP-2. Other major clear bands were not detected on zymography gels. Bands correlating to MMP-9 were not detected in any samples. The ELISA results revealed a mean ± SD proenzyme MMP-2 concentration of 5.61 ± 1.92 ng/mL (range, 3.36 to 10.83 ng/mL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The proenzyme form of MMP-2 is detectable in CSF of clinically normal dogs, whereas MMP-9 is not detectable. Additional investigation of MMPs in CSF from dogs with various diseases of the nervous system is indicated. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1359–1362)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical signs, risk factors, and outcomes associated with bromide toxicosis (bromism) in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy treated with potassium or sodium bromide.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—83 clinically ill epileptic dogs with (cases; n = 31) and without (controls; 52) bromism.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information regarding signalment, epilepsy history, treatment, diet, clinicopathologic test results, concurrent diseases, clinical signs, and outcome. Case and control dogs were matched by the veterinary hospitals from which they were referred and by month of admission. A presumptive diagnosis of bromism was made in case dogs when treatment for primary clinical signs was limited to induction of diuresis or reduction in the dose of bromide administered, and this diagnosis was supported by serum bromide concentrations. Potential risk factors for bromism were identified via univariate and subsequent multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Results—Common clinical signs of bromism included alterations in consciousness, ataxia, and upper and lower motor neuron tetraparesis and paraparesis. The multivariate analysis identified bromide dose at admission to the hospital as the only factor significantly associated with bromism. In all dogs with bromism, treatment via dose reduction or facilitated renal excretion of bromide resulted in rapid clinical improvement, although breakthrough seizures happened during treatment in 8 of 31 (26%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bromism is a clinically heterogeneous, dose-dependent neurotoxicosis that is largely reversible with treatment. Regular serial monitoring of serum bromide concentrations is recommended to optimize anticonvulsant treatment in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To evaluate computed tomography (CT) densitometry as a technique for quantifying contrast enhancement of compressive soft tissues in the canine lumbosacral vertebral canal and to determine whether the degree of contrast enhancement can be used to help predict tissue type or histopathologic characteristics.

Animals—29 large breed dogs with lumbosacral stenosis.

Procedure—Contrast-enhanced CT of L5-S3 was performed by use of a previously described protocol. At each disk level, CT densities of a water-filled syringe, epaxial muscles, and 4 vertebral canal locations were measured. Mean tissue enhancement was calculated by vertebral canal location, using water-filled syringe enhancement as a correction factor. Corrected CT enhancement was compared with tissue type, degree of tissue inflammation, and degree of tissue activity.

Results—Intravenous contrast administration of contrast medium significantly increased CT densities of water-filled syringes and epaxial muscles. Corrected CT enhancement of vertebral canal soft tissues at stenotic sites was greater than at nonstenotic sites. There was no association between enhancement and tissue type for any vertebral canal location. There was no correlation between enhancement and degree of tissue inflammation. There was a correlation between enhancement and tissue activity in the dorsal vertebral canal only.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A water-filled syringe is a useful calibration tool for CT density measurements. The degree of tissue contrast enhancement, measured by CT densitometry, can be helpful for predicting the location of compressive soft tissues in dogs with lumbosacral stenosis. However, it is of limited value for predicting compressive soft-tissue types or histopathologic characteristics. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:733–737)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate nonselective computed tomographic (CT) venography for evaluating the cervical internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP), define the diameter and area dimensions of the IVVP, and determine the relationship between dimensions of the cervical IVVP and other vertebral components in medium-sized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy dogs that weighed 18 to 27 kg.

Procedure—Helical CT scans were performed from C1 to C7 before and after IV injection of contrast medium (480 mg of iodine/kg) and a continuous infusion (240 mg of iodine/kg). Image data were transferred to a CT workstation, and measurements were performed on displayed transverse images. Diameter and area measurements of the vertebral canal, dural sac, IVVP, and vertebral body were obtained at C3 to C7.

Results—Opacification of vertebral venous structures was achieved in all dogs with no adverse reactions. Sagittal diameters of the IVVP for C3 to C7 ranged from 0.6 to 3.2 mm. Transverse diameters ranged from 2.32 to 5.74 mm. The IVVP area represented 12.4% of the mean vertebral canal transverse area and 30.61% of the mean vertebral epidural space area. Area measurements of the IVVP were significantly correlated with vertebral canal area and dural sac area.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that nonselective CT venography is a safe, sensitive method for performing morphometric assessments of the cervical IVVP in dogs. Findings support the theory that there may be a physiologic or developmental relationship between cervical vertebral canal components. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2039–2045)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To study the effects of experimentally induced hypothyroidism on skeletal muscle and characterize any observed myopathic abnormalities in dogs.

Animals—9 female, adult mixed-breed dogs; 6 with hypothyroidism induced with irradiation with 131 iodine and 3 untreated control dogs.

Procedures—Clinical examinations were performed monthly. Electromyographic examinations; measurement of plasma creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme activities; and skeletal muscle morphologic-morphometric examinations were performed prior to and every 6 months for 18 months after induction of hypothyroidism. Baseline, 6-month, and 18-month assessments of plasma, urine, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations were also performed.

Results—Hypothyroid dogs developed electromyographic and morphologic evidence of myopathy by 6 months after treatment, which persisted throughout the study, although these changes were subclinical at all times. Hypothyroid myopathy was associated with significant increases in plasma creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase 5 isoenzyme activities and was characterized by nemaline rod inclusions, substantial and progressive predominance of type I myofibers, decrease in mean type II fiber area, subsarcolemmal accumulations of abnormal mitochondria, and myofiber degeneration. Chronic hypothyroidism was associated with substantial depletion in skeletal muscle free carnitine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chronic, experimentally induced hypothyroidism resulted in substantial but subclinical phenotypic myopathic changes indicative of altered muscle energy metabolism and depletion of skeletal muscle carnitine. These abnormalities may contribute to nonspecific clinical signs, such as lethargy and exercise intolerance, often reported in hypothyroid dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features, diagnostic imaging abnormalities, underlying disease, disease progression, and outcome in dogs with bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—6 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were included if clinical signs consistent with bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome (ie, deficits of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves and at least 1 of the first 2 branches of the fifth cranial nerve) were present and a lesion of the cavernous sinus was identified by means of diagnostic imaging or postmortem examination.

Results—5 dogs were evaluated because of problems referable to abnormal ocular motility or pupillomotor dysfunction, and 1 dog was evaluated because of partial motor seizures involving the face and bilateral mydriasis. Four dogs had neurologic signs referable to an extrasinusoidal lesion at the time of initial examination, and the remaining 2 dogs eventually developed extrasinusoidal signs. Besides neuroanatomic location, the only consistent neuroimaging feature was variably intense, heterogeneous enhancement of cavernous sinus lesions. Neoplasia was histologically confirmed as the underlying cause in 5 of the dogs and was suspected in the remaining dog. Median survival time for the 4 dogs that were treated was 199 days (range, 16 to 392 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome is rare in dogs but should be suspected in dogs with compatible clinical signs. Affected dogs have a poor prognosis, and dogs with clinical signs of bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome should be systematically evaluated for neoplastic disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1105–1111)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association