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  • Author or Editor: Kakambi V. Nagaraja x
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Objective—To determine the susceptibility of ducks to avian pneumovirus (APV) of turkey origin.

Animals—30 Pekin ducks that were 2 weeks old.

Procedure—Ducks were assigned to 3 groups (10 ducks/group). Ducks of groups 1 and 2 were inoculated (day 0) with 200 µl of cell-culture fluid containing APV of turkey origin (105.5 median tissue-culture infective dose/ml) by the oculonasal (group 1) or oral (group 2) route. Ducks of group 3 served as noninoculated control birds. Two ducks from each group were euthanatized 3, 6, 9, 15, and 21 days after inoculation. Blood samples, tissue samples from the lungs, trachea, nasal turbinates, duodenum, diverticulum vitellinum (Meckel's diverticulum), and cecum, and swab specimens from the choana, cloaca, and trachea were obtained from all birds during necropsy and examined for APV by use of reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation, and histologic examination. Blood samples also were examined for APV antibodies, using an ELISA.

Results—Tissue samples obtained up to 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested by use of RT-PCR. Virus was isolated from nasal turbinates of birds inoculated via the oculonasal route. Serum samples obtained 15 and 21 days after inoculation had positive results when tested for APV-specific antibody. Clinical signs of disease were not observed in ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ducks inoculated with APV of turkey origin may not develop clinical signs of disease, but they are suspected to play a role as nonclinical carriers of APV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:991–992)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare molecular typing methods for the differentiation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4 isolates that allowed for the determination of their genetic relatedness.

Sample Population—27 Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4 strains isolated in the United States and Europe.

Procedure—Several molecular typing methods were performed to assess their ability to genetically differentiate among Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4 isolates. Results of pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA, and antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated.

Results—Compared with results for other techniques, results for the RAPD typing method with the RAPD1 primer reveal that it was the most discriminatory fingerprinting technique, and it allowed us to cluster Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4 isolates on the basis of their genetic similarity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed the value of RAPD with the RAPD1 primer as a tool for epidemiologic investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4. It can be used in conjunction with PFGE and phage typing to determine the genetic relatedness of Salmonella Enteritidis isolates involved in outbreaks of disease. A reliable and highly discriminatory method for epidemiologic investigations is critical to allow investigators to identify the source of infections and consequently prevent the spread of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 4. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:538–543)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research