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To compare resident and intern salaries with current regional living wages as a quantitative estimate of financial strain.


152 residency programs and 141 internship programs listed with the Veterinary Internship and Residency Matching Program for the 2021–2022 training year.


Data were collected for program annual salary and location. Regional living wage for each location was determined with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Living Wage Calculator, and annual salary was compared with living wage to estimate income surplus before and after taxes. Results for programs in academia and private practice were compared. Spearman correlation was used to determine whether program annual salary was significantly associated with regional living wage.


Mean ± SD income surplus before taxes was $7,786 ± 9,426 for clinical residency programs, $16,672 ± 5,105 for laboratory animal programs, and $5,829 ± 8,119 for internships. Academic residencies and internships offered salaries significantly lower than those offered in private practice, and income surpluses before and after taxes were significantly lower for academic programs than for private practice programs. There were weak and moderate, respectively, correlations between program annual salary and regional living wage for residency (r = 0.369) and internship (r = 0.570) programs.


Postgraduate training prolongs financial instability, and annual salaries generally do not meet the minimum income standard of a living wage. Financial stress has implications for mental health and diversity, and these findings invite deeper consideration of current remuneration practices for veterinary residents and interns.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify prognostic factors in a large group of dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular hemangiosarcoma (HSA) or both.

Design—Multi-institutional retrospective cohort study.

Animals—71 dogs with subcutaneous or intramuscular HSA.

Procedures—Medical records of affected dogs were reviewed. The following factors were evaluated for an association with outcome: dog age and sex, clinical signs, anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, tumor stage at diagnosis, achievement of complete excision, intramuscular involvement, presence of gross disease, tumor recurrence, and treatment.

Results—Of the 71 cases identified, 16 (29%) had intramuscular tumor involvement. For all dogs, median time to tumor progression and overall survival time (OST) were 116 and 172 days, respectively; 25% survived to 1 year. Univariate analysis identified presence of clinical signs or metastasis at diagnosis, dog age, tumor size, use of any surgery, and presence of gross disease as predictors of time to tumor progression and OST. There was no significant difference in survival time between dogs with respect to type of HSA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that adequate local tumor control, tumor diameter ≤ 4 cm, presence of metastasis at diagnosis, and presence of gross disease were significantly associated with OST.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Subcutaneous and intramuscular HSA remains a heterogeneous group of tumors that generally carries a poor prognosis. Adequate local control of smaller tumors with no associated clinical signs or metastasis may provide the best chance of long-term survival.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association