Objective—To determine prevalence, reason for evaluation, treatment, and outcome for dogs and cats with presumed solitary ocular lymphoma (PSOL).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—7 dogs and 2 cats with PSOL.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Progression-free survival time (PFST) and overall survival time (OST) were determined.
Results—Animals with intraocular (4 dogs and 1 cat) or conjunctival (3 dogs and 1 cat) lymphoma represented 0.1% and 0.08% of patients with lymphoma evaluated at the hospital during the study period, respectively. Animals with intraocular lymphoma represented 0.19% of all patients with uveitis; animals with conjunctival lymphoma represented 0.16% of all patients with conjunctivitis. Tumors included B-cell (2 intraocular and 1 conjunctival), non–B-cell, non–T-cell (1 intraocular), and T-cell (3 conjunctival) neoplasms; immunophenotype of 2 uveal lymphomas was not determined. Treatments included enucleation (4 intraocular) and chemotherapy (3 intraocular and 2 conjunctival). All dogs with intraocular lymphoma developed neurologic signs. Lymph node metastasis was detected in 2 patients with conjunctival lymphoma. Median PFST and OST were 178 days for all animals with PSOL, dogs with PSOL, and animals with intraocular lymphoma. Median PFST and OST for animals with conjunctival lymphoma were 221 and 549 days, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated PSOL was uncommon, but should be considered a differential diagnosis for animals with uveitis or conjunctivitis. Performance of MRI and cytologic analysis of CSF and regional lymph node aspirate samples may be beneficial for such patients. Prognosis seemed to be better for animals with conjunctival lymphoma than it was for those with intraocular lymphoma.
OBJECTIVE To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment.
PROCEDURES Rocuronium bromide (20 μL/eye; 10 mg/mL) or saline (20 μL/eye; 0.9% NaCl) solution was administered in both eyes of each bird with a 26-day washout period. The birds were manually restrained in lateral recumbency with the apex of the cornea positioned upward for 2 minutes following administration in each eye. Infrared pupillometry and direct pupillary light reflex measurements were used to evaluate the mydriatic effects. Pupillary measurements were recorded prior to administration and every 20 minutes for 2 hours after administration, then hourly for a total of 7 hours. A brief physical examination was performed, direct pupillary light reflex was tested, and fluorescein staining was performed on each eye of each bird 24 hours after administration.
RESULTS A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. Minimal adverse effects were noted. Three birds had transient inferior eyelid paresis noted in both eyes after receiving rocuronium; 24 hours after the treatment, no differences in ocular measurements existed between the active and control treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species.
OBJECTIVE To describe diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of and risk factors for ophthalmic disease in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 112 of 144 (78%) leopard geckos that were evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital in January 1985 through October 2013 and for which sufficient medical record information was available.
PROCEDURES Information from medical records was used to identify leopard geckos with ophthalmic disease, characterize cases, and determine risk factors for the presence of ophthalmic disease.
RESULTS Of the 112 leopard geckos, 52 (46%) had ophthalmic disease (mainly corneal or conjunctival disease). Female geckos were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, and there was a positive association between increasing age and ophthalmic disease. Use of a paper towel substrate, absence of any heat source, and lack of vitamin A supplementation were positively associated with a diagnosis of ophthalmic disease. Head dysecdysis was the only concurrent disorder significantly associated with ophthalmic disease. At necropsy, 5 affected leopard geckos had squamous metaplasia of the conjunctivae.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ophthalmic disease is a common finding in leopard geckos. The cause of ocular surface disease in leopard geckos may be multifactorial, and hypovitaminosis A may be an important risk factor. Although animals receiving supplemental vitamin A were less likely to have ophthalmic disease, further understanding is required regarding the metabolism of and nutritional requirements for vitamin A in leopard geckos.