A 10-year-old 9.4-kg (20.7-lb) neutered male Fox Terrier with atopic dermatitis (originally diagnosed at 16 months of age) triggered by environmental and food allergens underwent reevaluation. Since the time of the initial diagnosis, the dog regularly received immunotherapy injections,a shampoo therapy,b and ear cleaning with a topical ear cleanserc as well as a hypoallergenic prescription dietd to control pruritus. Three years prior, a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease had been made, which was also controlled and in remission through consumption of the hypoallergenic prescription diet.d At the time of
Case Description—A 4-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog with a history of allergic skin disease was examined because of regurgitation, coughing, and dysphagia that began 15 days after abdominal surgery for correction of gastric dilatation and volvulus.
Clinical Findings—Severe diffuse esophagitis, esophageal dysmotility, and a benign esophageal stricture at the level of the base of the heart were identified via contrast videofluoroscopy and esophagoscopy. Severe diffuse eosinophilic ulcerative esophagitis was confirmed by histologic examination of esophageal biopsy specimens and cytologic evaluation of specimens obtained by use of a cytology brush. Esophageal eosinophils were evident (14% to 50% of the inflammatory cell population and > 25 eosinophils/hpf).
Treatment and Outcome—No clinical or endoscopic improvement was evident after treatment with antireflux medications, including a proton-pump inhibitor, following an initial esophageal bougienage procedure. An excellent response characterized by resolution of dysphagia and regurgitation with marked improvement of the esophageal mucosa was evident following intralesional and systemic administration of glucocorticoids, 2 additional esophageal bougienage procedures, and feeding of an elimination diet.
Clinical Relevance—To our knowledge, the information reported here is the first description of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) in a dog. Many similarities exist between the condition in the dog reported here and EE in humans. This clinical report highlights the need to consider EE as a differential diagnosis for esophagitis and esophageal strictures in dogs. When appropriate, esophageal biopsy or cytologic specimens should be obtained and examined to investigate the possibility of EE.
Objective—To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections.
Procedures—An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance.
Results—Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.