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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the level of agreement (LOA) between direct and oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurements and the ability of oscillometric measurements to accurately detect hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

ANIMALS

8 captive, adult chimpanzees.

PROCEDURES

During prescheduled annual examinations, each chimpanzee underwent general anesthesia and patient monitoring for their examination, echocardiography for a concurrent study, and measurement of direct BP with the use of tibial artery catheterization and oscillometry with the use of a cuff placed around a brachium and a cuff placed around the second digit of the contralateral forelimb for the present study. Bland-Altman plots were generated to compare results for direct and oscillometric BP measurements. Mean bias and 95% LOAs were calculated for oscillometric measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) for each cuff site. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting hypotension were also determined for each cuff site.

RESULTS

There were 74 paired direct and brachial oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP and 66 paired direct and digit oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP. Only brachial oscillometric measurements of MAP had adequate sensitivity (78%) and specificity (95%) to accurately detect hypotension, and this technique also had the least mean bias (0.8 mm Hg; 95% LOA, –29 to 31 mm Hg).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that brachial oscillometric measurement of MAP provided reasonable agreement with tibial arterial direct MAP measurement and performed well in diagnosing hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the effects of a 4-week group class specifically created for dogs ≥ 8 years old (senior dogs) on the development and progression of signs consistent with cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).

ANIMALS

86 dogs with or without signs of CDS at the time of study enrollment.

PROCEDURES

Dog owners completed a proprietary CDS survey at baseline and then 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of the baseline survey. Twenty owners with their dogs attended 4 weekly 50-minute classes that were specifically developed for senior dogs, addressed common behavior problems for these dogs, and included training and enrichment activities. Survey results were compared between class and nonclass groups and within groups at 3, 6, and 12 months.

RESULTS

The association between age and CDS score was significant, such that older dogs had signs consistent with a higher degree of impairment. Cognitive dysfunction syndrome scores for dogs that attended the class did not significantly differ at 12 months, compared with scores at 3 months, whereas the CDS scores for dogs that did not attend the class were significantly increased at 12 months, compared with scores at 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Signs of CDS developed or worsened as dogs aged. Participation in the senior dog class mitigated the progression of signs of CDS and may improve a senior dog's quality of life.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Kittens are the principal disseminators of Toxoplasma gondii. They can shed > 108 oocysts in the feces after initial infection with bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Thereafter, most kittens develop protective immunity and do not shed oocysts again if they are reinfected. Bradyzoites of a T gondii mutant, designated T-263, were used to vaccinate kittens. Their use did not result in oocyst shedding, but successfully prevented 84% (31/37) of the kittens from shedding oocysts when challenge exposed with a normal isolate of T gondii. Vaccination of outdoor-roaming cats and kittens would be a useful public health measure to prevent transmission of toxoplasmosis near homes, on farms, and in zoos. It is anticipated that several years will be required for a lyophilized bradyzoite vaccine to be ready for licensing and possible commercial availability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Corticocancellous bone graft was obtained from the caudoventral portion of the mandible of 8 dogs. The recipient site was an alveolar jugal and alveolar defect from vital root amputation of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary fourth premolar. Anatomic observations of 20 canine cadavers indicated that guidelines for harvesting bone from the caudoventral portion of the mandible of dogs were the mesial aspect of the masseteric fossa, the distal aspect of the roots of the first mandibular molar, and the ventral aspect of the mandibular canal. The mean weight of corticocancellous bone harvested was 0.4 ± 0.1 g. Harvested corticocancellous bone was adequate to fill recipient sites measuring a mean volume of 105.0 ± 28.5 mm3. Histologic evaluation of the recipient site revealed progressive osseous integration of the bone-graft site during a mean follow-up period of 3.5 ± 1.9 months. There was normal bone healing of the donor site without adverse effects on the mandibular molars or neurovascular structures of the mandibular canal. Vital amputation sites receiving silver amalgam had evidence of plasmacytic/lymphocytic inflammation associated with residual silver amalgam in the bone-graft area. The caudoventral portion of the mandible may be used as a donor site for autogenous corticocancellous bone in periodontal surgery of dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Approximately 10 of 100 young heifers that had recently delivered their first calf—members of a large Colorado dairy herd—had a syndrome of swollen teats and distal portions of the hind limbs, prefemoral lymphadenopathy, transient fever, rough coat, decreased milk production, and subsequent weight loss and reproductive inefficiency. Acute clinical signs of disease were associated with large numbers of Eperythrozoon wenyonii seen on blood smears, and resolution of signs correlated with reduction or disappearance of the parasite. Other known causes of peripheral edema could not be documented. The parasite was transmitted to 4 of 7 nonlactating dairy cows destined to be culled and a splenectomized calf via IV inoculation of blood from parasitemic heifers, but clinical signs of infection were not induced.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To study biomechanical characteristics of the normal and surgically altered canine thoracolumbar vertebral column to determine the effects of surgery and trauma on lateral stability.

Animals

The T13-L1 vertebral motion units of 48 mixed-breed dogs were dissected free of surrounding musculature and prepared for biomechanical testing by cross-pinning the vertebral bodies and mounting in polymethylmethacrylate.

Procedure

Normal and surgically altered spinal specimens were subjected to lateral bending. The mean slope of the bending moment versus angular displacement curve and the load to failure were compared between treatment groups and significance was determined by the method of least squares (P < 0.05). Specimens were surgically altered by facetectomy, lateral fenestration, diskectomy, and combinations of these procedures. Each specimen was subjected to lateral bending to failure at a rate of 2.5 cm/min in a swing arm bending jig designed to simulate 4-point bending and subject the specimen to pure bending.

Results

Only specimens undergoing diskectomy had a significant decrease in slope and load at failure. Unilateral and bilateral facetectomies and fenestration induced a nonsignificant decrease in stiffness, compared with control specimens.

Conclusions

Fenestrations and facetectomies do not appear to increase the risk of injury to the canine thoracolumbar spinal cord during lateral bending.

Clinical Relevance

Fenestrations and facetectomies, as used in routine laminectomies, may be performed without concern for significant destabilization of the spine in lateral bending; however, it is possible that thoracolumbar spinal fractures involving only the vertebral body may significantly destabilize the spine in all modes of bending. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1228-1232)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

The association of abnormal uterine discharge with the development of intramammary infection (imi) was studied in 62 multiparous Holstein cows during the nonlactating period and from lactation days 3 through 30. Duplicate milk samples were obtained from each mammary gland at approximately day 30 of the nonlactating period. Milk samples for bacteriologic culture also were obtained from each gland from all cows at the end of the previous lactation, at parturition, and on a minimum of 7 additional dates during the first 30 days of lactation. Beginning after parturition and continuing once weekly for 4 weeks, each cow was examined, using a vaginal speculum to visually estimate the quantity of abnormal uterine discharge in the vagina. Additionally, uterine swab specimens were obtained for aerobic bacteriologic culture. Cows were allotted to groups on the basis of the maximal amount of abnormal uterine discharge observed at any 1 of the 4 examinations. Cows in group 1 had normal discharge or < 30 ml of abnormal discharge; in group 2, ≥ 30 ml of abnormal discharge, observed only on examination by vaginal speculum; and in group 3, ≥ 30 ml of abnormal discharge visible externally. A difference was not detected in the development of new imi in the nonlactating period between cows that subsequently developed uterine discharge and those that did not. Although significant differences were not found, a tendency for lactating cows with abnormal uterine discharge to be at increased risk for developing new imi was observed. Direct associations were not found between aerobic bacterial species isolated from the uterus and species isolated from glands with newly developed imi during lactation. This lack of association indicated that development of imi in lactation was not likely a direct result of teat-end exposure to bacteria originating from the uterus.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify herd characteristics and management practices associated with bulk-tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) in dairy herds in Ohio enrolled in official Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) programs.

Sample Population—186 dairies in Ohio.

Procedure—All herds in official DHIA programs in 9 counties were asked to participate. Extensive information regarding herd characteristics and management practices was obtained, using a standardized questionnaire. Bulk-tank milk samples were requested from all participating herds for bacterial culture. Official DHIA test-day records for January 1997 were obtained from all herds enrolled in official DHIA programs in the 9 counties. Potential associations were identified, using multivariable ANOVA.

Results—Participation was 186 of 479 (39%) herds. Streptococcus agalactiae and Mycoplasma spp were not isolated from bulk-tank milk samples. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 64 of 172 (37%) of the herds. The BTSCC were inversely associated with peak daily milk production, postmilking teat disinfection, percentage of eligible cows in the herd detected in estrus, and directly related to the extent to which BTSCC was perceived as a herd problem during the preceding 2 years. Type of housing for nonlactating cows and product used for treatment of nonlactating cows also were significantly associated with BTSCC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Consideration of herd characteristics and implementation of management practices associated with BTSCC could result in increased milk yield and production of milk with lower BTSCC. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1092–1098)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To test whether generalized Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection could be induced by intratracheal inoculation in llamas and to characterize this infection.

Animals—6 test and 3 control llamas.

Procedure—Test llamas received 1 of 3 dosages of S zooepidemicus by intratracheal injection, whereas control llamas received sterile culture medium. Physical examination variables and results of clinicopathologic analyses of blood, peritoneal fluid, and tracheal wash fluid were compared in test llamas between, before, and during the development of bacteremia and with control llamas. Bacteriologic culture was performed on all collected body fluids and tissue specimens that were collected at necropsy. Tissue specimens that were collected at necropsy were examined histologically.

Results—Infection induced fever, anorexia, and signs of depression. Five of 6 infected llamas developed specific signs of inflammation in the thorax or abdomen, bacteremia, neutrophilic leukocytosis with toxic changes and high band neutrophil cell counts, hyperfibrinogenemia, and high peritoneal fluid WBC counts and protein concentrations. On development of bacteremia, llamas had significant decreases in serum iron (from 118 ± 25 to 6 ± 4 µg/ml) and increases in serum glucose (from 131 ± 5 to 253 ± 48 mg/dl) concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceStreptococcus zooepidemicus spreads rapidly to other body compartments after intratracheal inoculation in llamas. Fever, anorexia, and signs of depression are the most consistent clinical signs, although other signs are possible. Clinicopathologic analysis of body fluids yields evidence of inflammation. Infection by S zooepidemicus can be proven by bacteriologic culture of body fluids before death or of tissue specimens after death. (Am J Vet Res 2000:61;1525–1529)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine plasma disposition after dermal application of a liposome-encapsulated formulation of lidocaine in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats with a mean (± SD) body weight of 4.1 ± 0.44 kg.

Procedure—CBC determination and biochemical analysis of blood samples were performed for all cats. Cats were anesthetized by use of isoflurane, and catheters were placed IV in a central vein. The next day, blood samples were obtained from the catheters before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after applying a 4% liposome-encapsulated lidocaine cream (15 mg/kg) to a clipped area over the cephalic vein. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine were analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography assay.

Results—Two cats had minimal transdermal absorption of lidocaine, with lidocaine concentrations below the sensitivity of the assay at all but 1 or 2 time points. In the other 4 cats, the median maximum plasma concentration was 149.5 ng/ml, the median time to maximum plasma concentration was 2 hours, and the median area under the concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity was 1014.5 ng·h/ml.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Maximum plasma concentrations of lidocaine remained substantially below toxic plasma concentrations for cats. On the basis of these data, topical administration of a liposome-encapsulated lidocaine formulation at a dose of 15 mg/kg appears to be safe for use in healthy adult cats. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1309–1312)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research