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To obtain Doppler ultrasonographic images of renal arteries in horses and to establish reference range values for systolic and diastolic renal arterial blood flow and resistive indices. Also to determine whether Doppler ultrasonography could be used in horses to detect changes in renal blood flow after IV administration of furosemide.


11 clinically normal adult horses.


Pulsed-wave Doppler examinations were performed on arcuate arteries of 5 sedated horses. Continuous-wave Doppler examinations were performed on pyelorenal arteries in 7 nonsedated horses and were repeated in 6 horses after furosemide administration. Peak-systolic velocity (SV) and end-diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured and the resistive indices (RI) were calculated.


Using pulse-wave Doppler ultrasonography in sedated horses, arcuate arteries were determined to have a SV of 0.406 ± 0.116 m/s (mean ± SD), EDV of 0.184 ± 0.057 m/s, and Rl of 0.549 ± 0.044. Using continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonography in nonsedated horses, pyelorenal arteries were determined to have SV of 1.047 ± 0.009 m/s, EDV of 0.510 ± 0.006 m/s, and Rl of 0.512 ± 0.004. Doppler waveforms from the arcuate and pyelorenal arteries had a low resistance flow pattern, characterized by a systolic peak followed by a continuous antegrade diastolic flow. After furosemide administration, the pyelorenal arterial velocities increased, but the RI remained unchanged.


Doppler ultrasonography may be used to record renal blood flow in horses and to detect changes following furosemide administration.

Clinical Relevance

Doppler ultrasonographic images may assist in the diagnosis of renal diseases that affect either blood flow or Doppler waveform. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:697–701)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Sonographic and anatomic observations were made of the kidneys of 23 Thoroughbreds or Standardbreds. In an in vitro study of 16 horses, precise correlations were established between the gross anatomic features of the kidneys and their sonographic appearance in images obtained in dorsal, sagittal, transverse, and transverse oblique anatomic planes. The renal cortex had a uniformly mottled echogenicity, and the renal medulla was relatively hypoechogenic, compared with the cortex. Acoustic anisotropy was observed in the cortex and medulla of the cranial and caudal extremities of each kidney. The distinctive renal pelvis was seen in the transverse plane as an echogenic pair of diverging lines that lead to the crescent shaped renal crest in the lateral half of the kidney. In images made in the sagittal plane, the renal pelvis was seen as a pair of parallel echogenic lines separated by the moderately echogenic line of the renal crest. The terminal recesses were best seen in the transverse oblique views of each extremity, where they appeared as moderately echogenic lines in the medulla of the cranial and caudal extremities. The interlobar vessels were represented as irregular echogenic lines in the medulla, and the arcuate vessels were seen as echogenic points at the corticomedullary junction. At the hilus, the renal artery or its branches was located cranial to the renal vein, which in turn was cranial to the position of the proximal portion of the ureter.

In an in vivo study of 7 horses, sonographic images of the right kidney were obtained in the sagittal, transverse, and transverse oblique anatomic planes in all horses, with the transducer positioned at the 15th, 16th, or 17th intercostal space; images in the dorsal plane were obtained, however, in only 3 of the horses. For the left kidney, sonographic images were obtained in each of the anatomic planes when the transducer was positioned at the 16th or 17th intercostal space or the paralumbar fossa; rectal location of the transducer gave images in the dorsal and sagittal planes.

In this study, a routine sonographic imaging protocol, using standard anatomic planes, enabled each kidney to be examined in its entirety. The protocol provided definition of normal renal sonographic anatomic features and may permit a more informed and accurate recognition of renal pathologic change.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase (calp) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ialp) from dogs were purified to homogeneity, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purification involved an uninterrupted system using deae-cellulose, concanavalin Aagarose, and monoclonal antibody affinity columns. The monoclonal antibody was prepared by use of ialp as the antigen. The 2 isoenzymes were compared, using molecular weight determinations, amino acid analyses, peptide mapping, N-terminal sequencing of the first 10 amino acids, carbohydrate analyses, and recognition by anti-ialp)monoclonal antibody. The data indicated that canine ialp and (calp are identical with regard to recognition by monoclonal antibody and N-terminal amino acid sequence, nearly identical in amino acid content and peptide maps, but different in carbohydrate content. It was concluded that (calp is a product of the same gene as ialp and that differences in glycosyl transferase activities between liver and intestines or the presence of glycosidase activities in or around the intestinal mucosae result in the marked difference in carbohydrate content.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research