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A 16-month-old 3.73-kg (8.21-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat that had outdoor access was evaluated at a local veterinary service because of lethargy, expectoration of clear mucus, anorexia, and adipsia of 1 day's duration. Physical examination revealed tachypnea with a restrictive respiratory pattern, increased bronchovesicular pulmonary sounds, muffled heart sounds on the left side, and estimated 7% dehydration. After receiving 200 mL of fluids SC, the cat was referred to the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center.

At the referral examination, the cat was lethargic and hypothermic (36.7°C [98.1°F]) with a heart rate of 150 beats/min. The respiratory rate was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 1-year-old 19-kg (41.8-lb) spayed female Collie that had undergone surgical correction of a partial atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD; ostium primum defect) 6 months earlier underwent a recheck evaluation at a veterinary teaching hospital. After the previous echocardiographic diagnosis of a partial AVSD and a cleft anterior mitral valve leaflet had been made, surgical correction of both the dog's abnormalities had been performed with cardiopulmonary bypass. A right atriotomy was performed to access the partial AVSD. The cleft in the mitral valve leaflet was observed through the septal defect and closed with 4 cruciate sutures. The partial AVSD was repaired

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 17-year-old Boston Terrier was evaluated because of a loud heart murmur detected during auscultation by a veterinarian. The dog did not have clinical signs of illness. The only physical examination abnormality was a loud systolic heart murmur without precordial thrill that was loudest over the apex on the left when the dog was auscultated in a standing position. The murmur was consistent with mitral valve regurgitation.

Echocardiographic findings confirmed the presence of myxomatous mitral valve degeneration. The mitral leaflets were thickened, and the cranial leaflet had prolapsed behind the caudal leaflet. Color-flow Doppler ultrasonographic examination of the heart confirmed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 10-year-old 37-kg (81.4-lb) spayed female pit bull-type mixed-breed dog was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of multiple syncopal events. The dog had a previous medical history of recurrent urinary tract infections. Salient physical findings were obesity (body condition score, 9/9), heart rate of 120 beats/min with a regular rhythm, and a grade 2 right apical systolic murmur. The dog's systolic arterial blood pressure was measured 3 times by use of a Doppler technique, and the mean value was 140 mm Hg.

Thoracic radiography revealed mild generalized cardiomegaly with no evidence of pulmonary vascular congestion or cardiogenic pulmonary

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 10-year-old 12.7-kg (27.9-lb) neutered male Miniature Schnauzer was referred to the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of episodic weakness and syncope of 9 months' duration. The dog had no other pertinent medical history. The referring veterinarian made a diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome on the basis of a static ECG assessment. The ECG trace revealed sinoatrial arrest, junctional escape beats, and atrial premature contractions. The heart rate range was 35 to 145 beats/min. The veterinarian performed an atropine response test by administering atropine (0.044 mg/kg [0.02 mg/lb], IV, once). The heart rate and rhythm improved within

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 7-year-old 42.8-kg (94.2-lb) castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated at the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center on an emergency basis because of a sudden onset of lethargy. While in the waiting room, the dog had an episode of syncope. The owner did not report any previous clinical signs.

Clinical and Gross Findings

On physical examination, the dog had weak pulses, muffled heart sounds, and pale mucous membranes. Results of a CBC were unremarkable. Serum biochemical analysis revealed hypoalbuminemia and azotemia. Thoracic radiography revealed cardiomegaly and an enlarged vena cava. Limited echocardiographic examination revealed pericardial effusion with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 9-year-old 10-kg spayed female Pug was presented to the emergency service at the Kansas State University Veterinary Health Center with chief complaints of tachypnea and dyspnea of 3 to 4 days’ duration. On presentation, the dog was quiet, alert, and responsive. Rectal temperature was 38.7 °C; heart rate was 140 beats/min. The dog was panting with a noticeable expiratory push. Stenotic nares, stertorous breathing, and increased referred upper respiratory noise were also noted. There was no heart murmur auscultated on physical examination.

Results of a CBC and serum biochemical profile were unremarkable. Thoracic radiographic findings were consistent with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 6-week-old 252-g (0.56-lb) sexually intact male Netherland Dwarf rabbit was evaluated on an emergency basis because of sudden collapse. Earlier in the morning, the owners had found the rabbit lethargic and disoriented, although it was ambulatory and showed interest in food and water. After a period without observation during the daytime hours, the rabbit was found laterally recumbent and unresponsive but nonsubmerged in a shallow water bowl. The rabbit apparently regained consciousness and was transported to the clinic; during the car ride, it returned to normal mentation, as reported by the owners. The pet had been part of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 12-year-old 7.5-kg (16.5-lb) spayed female Shih Tzu was evaluated because it had 3 syncopal episodes within a 24-hour period. The dog had had a single syncopal episode 1 year previously but recovered immediately. The dog's veterinary records indicated that a previous diagnosis of subclinical hypercalcemia secondary to hyperparathyroidism had been made but that the dog was otherwise healthy.

On initial examination, the dog was bright, alert, and responsive, and the only abnormal clinical findings on physical examination were bradycardia and a grade 3 to 4 heart murmur heard loudest over the left apex of the heart. Initial database

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effects of a dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) anesthetic protocol versus isoflurane inhalation anesthesia on echocardiographic variables and plasma cardiac troponin 1 (cTnI) concentration in black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs; Cynomys ludovicianus).

ANIMALS

Nine 6-month-old sexually intact male captive BTPDs.

PROCEDURES

Each BTPD was randomly assigned to be anesthetized by IM administration of dexmedetomidine (0.25 mg/kg), ketamine (40 mg/kg), and midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) or via inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen. Three days later, each BTPD underwent the alternative anesthetic protocol. Echocardiographic data and a blood sample were collected within 5 minutes after initiation and just prior to cessation of each 45-minute-long anesthetic episode.

RESULTS

Time or anesthetic protocol had no significant effect on echocardiographic variables. For either protocol, plasma cTnI concentration did not differ with time. When administered as the first treatment, neither anesthetic protocol significantly affected plasma cTnI concentration. However, with regard to findings for the second treatments, plasma cTnI concentrations in isoflurane-treated BTPDs (n = 4; data for 1 animal were not analyzed because of procedural problems) were higher than values in DKM-treated BTPDs (4), which was suspected to be a carryover effect from prior DKM treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The DKM and isoflurane anesthetic protocols did not have any significant effect on echocardiographic measurements in the BTPDs. Increases in plasma cTnI concentration during the second anesthetic episode were evident when BTPDs underwent the DKM anesthetic protocol as the first of the 2 treatments, suggestive of potential myocardial injury associated with that anesthetic protocol. Clinicians should consider these findings, especially when evaluating BTPDs with known or suspected cardiac disease.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research