To compare the effects of a dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) anesthetic protocol versus isoflurane inhalation anesthesia on echocardiographic variables and plasma cardiac troponin 1 (cTnI) concentration in black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs; Cynomys ludovicianus).
Nine 6-month-old sexually intact male captive BTPDs.
Each BTPD was randomly assigned to be anesthetized by IM administration of dexmedetomidine (0.25 mg/kg), ketamine (40 mg/kg), and midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) or via inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen. Three days later, each BTPD underwent the alternative anesthetic protocol. Echocardiographic data and a blood sample were collected within 5 minutes after initiation and just prior to cessation of each 45-minute-long anesthetic episode.
Time or anesthetic protocol had no significant effect on echocardiographic variables. For either protocol, plasma cTnI concentration did not differ with time. When administered as the first treatment, neither anesthetic protocol significantly affected plasma cTnI concentration. However, with regard to findings for the second treatments, plasma cTnI concentrations in isoflurane-treated BTPDs (n = 4; data for 1 animal were not analyzed because of procedural problems) were higher than values in DKM-treated BTPDs (4), which was suspected to be a carryover effect from prior DKM treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The DKM and isoflurane anesthetic protocols did not have any significant effect on echocardiographic measurements in the BTPDs. Increases in plasma cTnI concentration during the second anesthetic episode were evident when BTPDs underwent the DKM anesthetic protocol as the first of the 2 treatments, suggestive of potential myocardial injury associated with that anesthetic protocol. Clinicians should consider these findings, especially when evaluating BTPDs with known or suspected cardiac disease.
To determine if left ventricular systolic function on echocardiography, systemic blood pressure, and electrocardiography change with a clinically accepted intravenous (IV) diltiazem constant rate infusion (CRI) compared to a control.
10 healthy client-owned adult dogs.
Prospective, masked, crossover study from May 27, 2021, to August 22, 2021. Dogs were randomized to receive diltiazem (loading dose of 240 μg/kg, IV followed by a CRI of 6 μg/kg/min for 300 minutes) or the same volume of 5% dextrose in water (D5W) administered IV followed by the opposite intervention after a 7-day washout. Blood pressure was monitored during each CRI, and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic studies were performed immediately before the CRI and during the last hour of the CRI.
Postdiltiazem systolic time interval (STI) (median, 0.30; range, 0.16 to 0.34) was significantly lower than post-D5W STI (median, 0.32; range, 0.22 to 0.40; P = .046). All other echocardiographic parameters did not differ significantly between each of the groups after receiving diltiazem or D5W. Systemic blood pressure did not change significantly with either diltiazem (P = .450) or D5W (P = .940), and none of the dogs became hypotensive at any point in the study. Expectedly, negative dromotropy was observed with diltiazem.
A significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function was not appreciated in healthy dogs receiving diltiazem at a clinically accepted intravenous infusion rate at this dosing regimen. Further studies are needed in dogs with cardiac disease.