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  • Author or Editor: Jung-Hyun Kim x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

3 toy-breed dogs (a 5-year-old Pomeranian, a 12-year-old Pomeranian, and a 13-year-old Yorkshire Terrier) were evaluated because of a sudden onset of nonambulatory tetraparesis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

In all 3 dogs, MRI revealed a dorsal compressive atlantoaxial (AA) band as the cause of the neurologic deficits. Percentages of dorsal compression of the spinal cord were 28.6%, 31%, and 28.8%.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

All 3 dogs underwent decompressive surgery via a dorsal approach. The AA band was removed, and a durotomy was performed, which resulted in spontaneous drainage of a copious amount of CSF. Grossly, the spinal cord parenchyma appeared normal, other than the dorsal compression. To alleviate the AA instability resulting from removal of the dorsal AA ligament, 2-0 polydioxanone was placed in the dorsal cervical muscles extending from the atlantooccipital joint to C2. Postoperatively, all 3 dogs regained normal ambulation between 18 and 30 days after surgery. No complications were reported, and clinical signs did not recur during follow-up times ranging from 4 to 19 months.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that surgical treatment may be an effective option in managing dogs with a dorsal compressive AA band causing nonambulatory tetraparesis. Notably, all of the dogs had other craniocervical abnormalities, but none of these abnormalities were considered severe enough to have caused tetraparesis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate cardiac structural and functional changes by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and strain imaging in dogs with spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus.

ANIMALS 30 client-owned dogs, of which 10 had normotensive type 1 diabetes mellitus and 20 were healthy.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent physical examination, laboratory analyses, standard echocardiography, and TDI.

RESULTS On TDI and strain imaging, transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E)-to-tissue Doppler–derived peak early diastolic velocity at basal segment (E') of septum ratio, E:lateral E’ ratio, and septal tissue Doppler–derived peak late diastolic velocity at basal segment (A') were significantly higher and the septal E':A’ ratio and lateral longitudinal strain were significantly lower for diabetic dogs than for control dogs. Furthermore, in diabetic dogs, serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations after a 12-hour period of food withholding were positively correlated with regional systolic functional variables (septal and lateral longitudinal strain) and left ventricular filling pressure indices (E:septal E’ and E:lateral E’ ratios) but were negatively correlated with diastolic functional variables (E:transmitral peak late diastolic velocity and septal and lateral E':A’ ratios).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that myocardial function in diabetic dogs may be altered before the development of clinical heart-associated signs and that the change may be more readily detected by TDI and strain imaging than by conventional echocardiography. In addition, findings indicated that hyperglycemia could have detrimental effects on myocardial function, independent of hypertension, other cardiac diseases, and left ventricular hypertrophy, in dogs with type 1 diabetes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Galectin-3 is a cardiac biomarker for heart failure in humans. However, it has not been investigated in dogs with naturally occurring heart disease. This study aimed to compare plasma galectin-3 concentration in healthy dogs and those with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and explore the potential association of galectin-3 with other cardiac biomarkers, inflammatory cytokines, echocardiographic estimates, and dog characteristics.

ANIMALS

10 healthy dogs and 30 dogs with MMVD were prospectively recruited.

PROCEDURES

In this case-control study, plasma galectin-3, inflammatory cytokines, echocardiographic estimates, and other cardiac biomarkers were measured, and dog characteristics were recorded.

RESULTS

Plasma galectin-3 concentration was significantly higher in dogs with MMVD (2.94 [interquartile range, 1.61 to 5.20] ng/mL) than in healthy controls (1.56 [0.69 to 1.84] ng/mL, P = .009). Logistic regression analysis revealed that galectin-3 concentration and age predicted the presence of MMVD (predictive accuracy = 90.0%, P < .05). A cut-off value ≥ 1.9 ng/mL for galectin-3 differentiated healthy dogs from dogs with MMVD (70% sensitivity; 90% specificity AUC, 0.77; P = .01).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Plasma galectin-3 concentration was higher in dogs with MMVD than in healthy dogs, indicating that it is a novel cardiac biomarker in dogs with MMVD although there was no significant difference between MMVD stages.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research