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  • Author or Editor: Jung-Hyun Kim x
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A15-year-old 8.0-kg (17.6-lb) sexually intact female mixed-breed dog was presented because of a peracute onset of unilateral imbalance and head tilt and 1 episode of grand mal seizure. Medical history of the dog indicated an absence of previous health problems. At the hospital, the dog was unable to stand and maintained sternal or lateral recumbency. On physical examination, the dog's mucous membranes were pale with normal capillary refill time; its rectal temperature was 38.1°C (100.6°F), respiratory rate was 18 breaths/min, and heart rate (with bounding pulses) was 130 beats/min. Systolic arterial blood pressure measured with the Doppler method was 160

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



3 toy-breed dogs (a 5-year-old Pomeranian, a 12-year-old Pomeranian, and a 13-year-old Yorkshire Terrier) were evaluated because of a sudden onset of nonambulatory tetraparesis.


In all 3 dogs, MRI revealed a dorsal compressive atlantoaxial (AA) band as the cause of the neurologic deficits. Percentages of dorsal compression of the spinal cord were 28.6%, 31%, and 28.8%.


All 3 dogs underwent decompressive surgery via a dorsal approach. The AA band was removed, and a durotomy was performed, which resulted in spontaneous drainage of a copious amount of CSF. Grossly, the spinal cord parenchyma appeared normal, other than the dorsal compression. To alleviate the AA instability resulting from removal of the dorsal AA ligament, 2-0 polydioxanone was placed in the dorsal cervical muscles extending from the atlantooccipital joint to C2. Postoperatively, all 3 dogs regained normal ambulation between 18 and 30 days after surgery. No complications were reported, and clinical signs did not recur during follow-up times ranging from 4 to 19 months.


Findings suggested that surgical treatment may be an effective option in managing dogs with a dorsal compressive AA band causing nonambulatory tetraparesis. Notably, all of the dogs had other craniocervical abnormalities, but none of these abnormalities were considered severe enough to have caused tetraparesis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 10-year-old spayed female Japanese Spitz was presented to the Konkuk University Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital for a routine medical check-up of systemic lupus erythematosus. Physical examination revealed an overall good body condition (weight, 7.8 kg; body condition score, 6/9), pink mucous membranes, and normal capillary refill time (< 1 second). The dog was bright, alert, and responsive. Respiratory rate was 30 breaths/min, and rectal temperature was 38.5 °C. Cardiac auscultation revealed no heart murmur, but a slower heart rate (78 beats/min) than that recorded during the previous examination (124 beats/min) and an irregular heart rhythm was detected. Femoral

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To investigate cardiac structural and functional changes by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and strain imaging in dogs with spontaneous type 1 diabetes mellitus.

ANIMALS 30 client-owned dogs, of which 10 had normotensive type 1 diabetes mellitus and 20 were healthy.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent physical examination, laboratory analyses, standard echocardiography, and TDI.

RESULTS On TDI and strain imaging, transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E)-to-tissue Doppler–derived peak early diastolic velocity at basal segment (E') of septum ratio, E:lateral E’ ratio, and septal tissue Doppler–derived peak late diastolic velocity at basal segment (A') were significantly higher and the septal E':A’ ratio and lateral longitudinal strain were significantly lower for diabetic dogs than for control dogs. Furthermore, in diabetic dogs, serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations after a 12-hour period of food withholding were positively correlated with regional systolic functional variables (septal and lateral longitudinal strain) and left ventricular filling pressure indices (E:septal E’ and E:lateral E’ ratios) but were negatively correlated with diastolic functional variables (E:transmitral peak late diastolic velocity and septal and lateral E':A’ ratios).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that myocardial function in diabetic dogs may be altered before the development of clinical heart-associated signs and that the change may be more readily detected by TDI and strain imaging than by conventional echocardiography. In addition, findings indicated that hyperglycemia could have detrimental effects on myocardial function, independent of hypertension, other cardiac diseases, and left ventricular hypertrophy, in dogs with type 1 diabetes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research