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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the diagnostic utility of a smartphone-based ECG device (Alivecor KardiaMobile) in awake bonobos (Pan paniscus).

ANIMALS

7 adult bonobos in human care.

PROCEDURES

Bonobos were trained with positive reinforcement to hold 1 finger from each hand onto the KardiaMobile sensors for 30 seconds to obtain an ECG reading. Ten ECG tracings were recorded from each bonobo and evaluated by a veterinarian, a veterinary cardiologist, and a human cardiologist for tracing quality, tracing length, heart rate, identification of P-waves, and presence and quantification of premature ventricular or atrial contractions.

RESULTS

6 of the 7 bonobos were trained within 21 weeks to allow the collection of 10 diagnostic quality ECG tracings. The average heart rate recorded was 87 bpm (range = 60 to 118 bpm). Potential abnormalities identified by the KardiaMobile included premature ventricular contractions in 2 male bonobos and 1 premature atrial contraction in another male. There was strong agreement by reviewers in all ECG parameters except for the identification of P-waves.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The Alivecor KardiaMobile device has diagnostic utility as a screening tool for use in bonobos in human care. The training was accomplished to yield diagnostic ECG readings of acceptable duration in awake bonobos. Given the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in great apes, this technology may identify a subset of great apes who may benefit from early intervention and treatment in an effort to delay the progression of cardiac disease.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess reliability of the Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) for measurement of tear production in cats in various environments, investigate whether sympathetic stimulation impacts measurements, and determine whether meaningful conclusions regarding lacrimation in cats can be drawn from STT-1 measurements obtained with STT strip placement for < 1 minute.

ANIMALS

176 cats examined in a private practice (n = 100), a feral cat clinic (56), or a veterinary teaching hospital (20).

PROCEDURES

The STT-1 was performed in both eyes of each cat. Measurements were recorded at 10− or 30-second intervals for 1 minute. Cats at the teaching hospital were tested once in a quiet examination room (unstimulated conditions) and once in the same room with loud prerecorded noises (stimulated conditions), with a 30-minute interval between tests and evaluation of cats’ heart rates before and after STT-1. Data were analyzed with parametric statistical tools and a nonlinear mixed-effect model.

RESULTS

30− and 60-second STT-1 measurements were significantly correlated (r = 0.94). The STT-1 measurements did not differ under nonstimulated versus stimulated conditions, despite significant changes in heart rates that indicated sympathetic stimulation. A hyperbolic model of STT-1 kinetics was validated, allowing for extrapolation of measurements obtained in < 60 seconds and generation of reference values (95% predictive intervals) for various test durations. Median (95% predictive interval) 30− and 60-second STT-1 measurements were 9.1 mm (4.8 to 15.6 mm) and 14.3 mm (8.2 to 22.3 mm), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The STT-1 was a reliable diagnostic test in all settings; results were not affected by sympathetic stimulation, and a shorter duration of testing could be considered in selected cases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 15-year-old sexually intact female ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was evaluated for a heart murmur and progressive radiographic cardiomegaly.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The lemur was clinically normal at the time of initial evaluation. Results of transthoracic echocardiography performed when the animal was anesthetized indicated mitral valve stenosis and severe left atrial dilation. Three months later, signs of left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF; coughing, exercise intolerance, and tachypnea) were observed and confirmed by the presence of radiographic pulmonary edema.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Medical treatment that consisted of aspirin, benazepril, furosemide, pimobendan, spironolactone, and ultimately torsemide in lieu of furosemide successfully controlled the lemur's clinical signs for 33 months after the development of CHF. Euthanasia was then elected on the basis of perceived poor quality of life because tachypnea became refractory to progressively higher dosages of diuretic. Necropsy confirmed mitral stenosis with severe left atrial dilation and chronic pulmonary congestion.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The present report described the long-term medical management of CHF secondary to mitral stenosis in a lemur. Mitral stenosis was suspected to be a congenital defect, similar to the cause of mitral stenosis reported for dogs and cats, rather than to be an acquired change in association with rheumatic heart disease as commonly occurs for people. The lemur's CHF was well managed for 33 months with treatment, including pimobendan, which was well tolerated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association