OBJECTIVE To establish a study cutoff for evidence of glaucoma on the basis of IOP measurements from a large population of healthy dogs and to assess the effects of IV propofol administration on IOPs in premedicated and nonpremedicated dogs with and without glaucoma defined by this method.
DESIGN Prospective, descriptive study.
ANIMALS 234 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES IOPs measured in 113 healthy dogs (226 eyes) were used to calculate an IOP value indicative of glaucoma. The IOPs were measured in an additional 121 dogs (237 eyes) undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Midazolam-butorphanol was administered IV as preanesthetic medication to 15 and 87 dogs with and without glaucoma, respectively. A placebo (lactated Ringer solution) was administered IV to 8 and 11 dogs with and without glaucoma, respectively. Anesthesia of surgical patients was induced with propofol IV to effect. The IOPs and physiologic variables of interest were recorded before (baseline) and after preanesthetic medication or placebo administration and after propofol administration.
RESULTS An IOP > 25 mm Hg was deemed indicative of glaucoma. Compared with baseline measurements, mean IOP was increased after propofol administration in nonpremedicated dogs without glaucoma and unchanged in nonpremedicated dogs with glaucoma. Propofol-associated increases in IOP were blunted in premedicated dogs without glaucoma; IOP in affected eyes of premedicated dogs with glaucoma was decreased after preanesthetic medication and after propofol administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that preexisting IOP influences the response to anesthetic drugs, and administration of preanesthetic medication with muscle-relaxing properties may blunt or reduce propofol-induced increases in IOP. Further research with a larger number of dogs is needed to confirm our results in dogs with glaucoma.
Objective—To evaluate markers of in vivo platelet function (urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 [11-dehydroTXB2] and 2,3-dinorTXB2) and assess their response to administration of 2 commonly used dosages of aspirin in healthy dogs.
Animals—20 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Urine was collected prior to aspirin administration and on the morning following the last evening administration. Twenty dogs received aspirin (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 7 consecutive doses. After a washout period of 5 months, 10 dogs received a single dose of aspirin (10 mg/kg, PO). Concentrations of urinary thromboxane metabolites 11-dehydroTXB2 and 2,3-dinorTXB2 were measured via ELISA, and values were normalized to urine creatinine concentration.
Results—Median baseline 11-dehydroTXB2 concentrations were 0.38 ng/mg of creatinine (range, 0.15 to 1.13 ng/mg). Mean ± SD baseline 2 at a 3-dinorTXB2 concentrations were 6.75 ± 2.77 ng/mg of creatinine. Administration of aspirin at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 7 days did not significantly decrease urinary 11-dehydroTXB2 concentration, but administration of the single aspirin dose of 10 mg/kg did significantly decrease 11-dehydroTXB2 concentration by a median of 45.5% (range, 28.2% to 671%). Administration of the 1 mg/kg aspirin dosage significantly decreased urinary 2,3-dinorTXB2 concentration by a mean ± SD of 33.0 ± 23.7%. Administration of the single aspirin dose of 10 mg/kg also significantly decreased 2,3-dinorTXB2 concentration by a mean ± SD of 46.7 ± 12.6%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aspirin administration (1 mg/kg/d) may be insufficient for reliable platelet inhibition in healthy dogs.
Objective—To determine the earliest day of gestation at which relaxin could be detected in pregnant queens by use of a commercially available point-of-care test designed for use in dogs, and to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the test for pregnancy detection on any specified day of gestation.
Animals—162 female cats (24 queens from a breeding colony, 128 stray and feral queens undergoing ovariohysterectomy, and 10 ovariohysterectomized cats).
Procedures—24 queens were monitored for pregnancy. Blood samples were collected daily and tested for relaxin until 2 consecutive positive test results were obtained. The earliest day of pregnancy detection was estimated by counting backward from the day of parturition to the day of the first positive test. The uteri, ovaries, and any fetuses of 128 stray and feral queens undergoing ovariohysterectomy were examined grossly, and gestational day in pregnant queens was determined on the basis of fetal crown-rump length. Blood samples from these queens and from 10 cats ovariohysterectomized prior to the study were collected for relaxin testing.
Results—Pregnancy was detected by use of the relaxin test kit as early as gestational day 20; sensitivity of the test was 100% on and after gestational day 29. False-positive results were detected in 3 queens, 2 of which had large (approx 2 × 3-cm) ovarian cysts, resulting in a specificity of 95.9%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A commercially available relaxin test kit designed for use in dogs can be used to reliably detect pregnancy in cats.
Procedures—Parrots were anesthetized, and a 26-gauge, 19-mm catheter was placed percutaneously in the superficial ulnar artery for direct measurement of systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressures. Indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and an oscillometric unit. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare direct and indirect blood pressure values.
Results—There was substantial disagreement between direct systolic arterial blood pressure and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with the Doppler detector from the wing (bias, 24 mm Hg; limits of agreement, −37 to 85 mm Hg) and from the leg (bias, 14 mm Hg; limits of agreement, −14 to 42 mm Hg). Attempts to obtain indirect blood pressure measurements with the oscillometric unit were unsuccessful.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was substantial disagreement between indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector in anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and directly measured systolic arterial blood pressure.
To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.
A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.
SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.