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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate markers of in vivo platelet function (urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 [11-dehydroTXB2] and 2,3-dinorTXB2) and assess their response to administration of 2 commonly used dosages of aspirin in healthy dogs.

Animals—20 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Urine was collected prior to aspirin administration and on the morning following the last evening administration. Twenty dogs received aspirin (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 7 consecutive doses. After a washout period of 5 months, 10 dogs received a single dose of aspirin (10 mg/kg, PO). Concentrations of urinary thromboxane metabolites 11-dehydroTXB2 and 2,3-dinorTXB2 were measured via ELISA, and values were normalized to urine creatinine concentration.

Results—Median baseline 11-dehydroTXB2 concentrations were 0.38 ng/mg of creatinine (range, 0.15 to 1.13 ng/mg). Mean ± SD baseline 2 at a 3-dinorTXB2 concentrations were 6.75 ± 2.77 ng/mg of creatinine. Administration of aspirin at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 7 days did not significantly decrease urinary 11-dehydroTXB2 concentration, but administration of the single aspirin dose of 10 mg/kg did significantly decrease 11-dehydroTXB2 concentration by a median of 45.5% (range, 28.2% to 671%). Administration of the 1 mg/kg aspirin dosage significantly decreased urinary 2,3-dinorTXB2 concentration by a mean ± SD of 33.0 ± 23.7%. Administration of the single aspirin dose of 10 mg/kg also significantly decreased 2,3-dinorTXB2 concentration by a mean ± SD of 46.7 ± 12.6%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aspirin administration (1 mg/kg/d) may be insufficient for reliable platelet inhibition in healthy dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To establish a study cutoff for evidence of glaucoma on the basis of IOP measurements from a large population of healthy dogs and to assess the effects of IV propofol administration on IOPs in premedicated and nonpremedicated dogs with and without glaucoma defined by this method.

DESIGN Prospective, descriptive study.

ANIMALS 234 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES IOPs measured in 113 healthy dogs (226 eyes) were used to calculate an IOP value indicative of glaucoma. The IOPs were measured in an additional 121 dogs (237 eyes) undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Midazolam-butorphanol was administered IV as preanesthetic medication to 15 and 87 dogs with and without glaucoma, respectively. A placebo (lactated Ringer solution) was administered IV to 8 and 11 dogs with and without glaucoma, respectively. Anesthesia of surgical patients was induced with propofol IV to effect. The IOPs and physiologic variables of interest were recorded before (baseline) and after preanesthetic medication or placebo administration and after propofol administration.

RESULTS An IOP > 25 mm Hg was deemed indicative of glaucoma. Compared with baseline measurements, mean IOP was increased after propofol administration in nonpremedicated dogs without glaucoma and unchanged in nonpremedicated dogs with glaucoma. Propofol-associated increases in IOP were blunted in premedicated dogs without glaucoma; IOP in affected eyes of premedicated dogs with glaucoma was decreased after preanesthetic medication and after propofol administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that preexisting IOP influences the response to anesthetic drugs, and administration of preanesthetic medication with muscle-relaxing properties may blunt or reduce propofol-induced increases in IOP. Further research with a larger number of dogs is needed to confirm our results in dogs with glaucoma.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To identify clinical variables that indicate postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy in a veterinary hospital setting.

Animals

40 cats.

Procedure

Cats were anesthetized and ovariohysterectomized by senior veterinary students. Butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [n = 20] or 0.3 mg/kg [20] of body weight) was administered IM after surgery. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the anesthestic period for measurements of PCV and blood glucose and cortisol concentrations. Clinical variables measured included heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Data for these variables were compared with changes in cortisol concentrations and with similar data—which was used as historical control data— obtained from 20 cats in another study (10 that had been ovariohysterectomized but had not received butorphanol and 10 that had only been anesthetized).

Results

Surgical durations were longer in this study, and cats had higher cortisol concentrations, compared with historical control cats. Objective clinical variables did not consistently correlate with changes in cortisol concentration.

Conclusions

Cortisol concentration increased in response to surgical stress and pain. This response was greater in cats in which duration of surgery was longer.

Clinical Relevance

The objective clinical variables evaluated in this study were not consistent indicators of pain in an uncontrolled, clinical situation. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:432-436)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify clinical indicators that may help identify postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy.

Animals

Healthy, laboratory animal source cats.

Procedure

Clinical indicators of pain were identified, and relief from pain in response to butorphanol was studied in 5 groups of cats. 10 cats had 1 hour of general anesthesia only, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight. Another 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.3 mg butorphanol/kg. 10 cats received 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg, IM, only. Samples and recorded data were obtained before, during, and after the anesthesia period. Clinical variables measured included heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, PCV, and blood glucose concentration. Results were compared with changes in norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol concentrations.

Results

Cats that did not receive analgesics had higher cortisol concentration than did cats without surgery and cats that received butorphanol after surgery. Systolic blood pressure measured by ultrasonic Doppler was found to be predictive of cortisol concentration, using a multiple linear regression model.

Conclusions

Cortisol concentration increased in response to surgical stress and pain, and this increase was diminished by use of butorphanol.

Clinical Relevance

Systolic blood pressure was the best clinical predictor of postoperative pain. (Am J Vet Res 1996;209:1674–1678)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the earliest day of gestation at which relaxin could be detected in pregnant queens by use of a commercially available point-of-care test designed for use in dogs, and to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the test for pregnancy detection on any specified day of gestation.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—162 female cats (24 queens from a breeding colony, 128 stray and feral queens undergoing ovariohysterectomy, and 10 ovariohysterectomized cats).

Procedures—24 queens were monitored for pregnancy. Blood samples were collected daily and tested for relaxin until 2 consecutive positive test results were obtained. The earliest day of pregnancy detection was estimated by counting backward from the day of parturition to the day of the first positive test. The uteri, ovaries, and any fetuses of 128 stray and feral queens undergoing ovariohysterectomy were examined grossly, and gestational day in pregnant queens was determined on the basis of fetal crown-rump length. Blood samples from these queens and from 10 cats ovariohysterectomized prior to the study were collected for relaxin testing.

Results—Pregnancy was detected by use of the relaxin test kit as early as gestational day 20; sensitivity of the test was 100% on and after gestational day 29. False-positive results were detected in 3 queens, 2 of which had large (approx 2 × 3-cm) ovarian cysts, resulting in a specificity of 95.9%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A commercially available relaxin test kit designed for use in dogs can be used to reliably detect pregnancy in cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A retrospective study of stored feline serum samples was done to determine the infection rate of feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in central Missouri. Infected cats were compared with uninfected cats subjected to the same selection criteria on the basis of signalment, clinical signs, and cbc abnormalities. A significant incidence of virus infection was found in male cats. Neither age nor breed predilection could be identified. Infected cats were more likely to be anemic and leukopenic because of neutropenia. Cellulitis and neoplasia were more common in infected cats. A spectrum of disease severity was seen in infected cats ranging from no clinical signs to signs of severe chronic inflammatory disease. Infected cats were more likely to have clinical disease. Mean survival of infected cats was 24.4 months from the time of diagnosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association