Objective—To review management of pregnant mares with body wall defects and assess the effect of various management strategies on the outcome of mares and their foals.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of eligible mares were reviewed. Signalment, history, admitting complaint, clinical findings, parity, type of body wall defect, concurrent diagnoses, postpartum complications, outcome of fetus, outcome of mare, and type of clinical case management were recorded.
Results—8 mares received conservative management and 5 mares received interventional management. Survival of mares to discharge was good, and no difference in mare survival was identified on the basis of type of management, type of body wall defect, or presence of hydrops. Foal survival was significantly better in the conservative management group, compared with those managed by interventional management, and was also better without hydrops.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Foal survival can be improved in mares with body wall defects that occur during parturition without compromising mare survival by use of conservative management strategies that avoid induction of parturition or elective caesarian section and allow for natural parturition. Potentially, improved fetal readiness for birth may play a role.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ϵ-aminocaproic acid (EACA), including the effects of EACA on coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy horses.
Animals—6 adult horses.
Procedures—Each horse received 3.5 mg of EACA/kg/min for 20 minutes, IV. Plasma EACA concentration was measured before (time 0), during, and after infusion. Coagulation variables and plasma α2-antiplasmin activity were evaluated at time 0 and 4 hours after infusion; viscoelastic properties of clot formation were assessed at time 0 and 0.5, 1, and 4 hours after infusion. Plasma concentration versus time data were evaluated by use of a pharmacokinetic analysis computer program.
Results—Drug disposition was best described by a 2-compartment model with a rapid distribution phase, an elimination half-life of 2.3 hours, and mean residence time of 2.5 ± 0.5 hours. Peak plasma EACA concentration was 462.9 ± 70.1 μg/mL; after the end of the infusion, EACA concentration remained greater than the proposed therapeutic concentration (130 μg/mL) for 1 hour. Compared with findings at 0 minutes, EACA administration resulted in no significant change in plasma α2-antiplasmin activity at 1 or 4 hours after infusion. Thirty minutes after infusion, platelet function was significantly different from that at time 0 and 1 and 4 hours after infusion. The continuous rate infusion that would maintain proposed therapeutic plasma concentrations of EACA was predicted (ie, 3.5 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes, then 0.25 mg/kg/min).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that EACA has potential clinical use in horses for which improved clot maintenance is desired.
Objective—To examine changes between 1996 and 2004 in regard to numbers of animals handled, medical care provided, expenses, numbers of employees, and agency policies for animal care and control agencies in Ohio.
Sample Population—223 animal care and control agencies.
Procedures—A questionnaire was mailed to animal care and control agencies in Ohio to collect information for 2004; results were compared with published results of a similar survey.
Results—165 of the 223 (74%) agencies responded. Estimated total number of animals handled in 2004 was 315,519, which represented a decrease of 7% compared with 1996. However, although number of dogs taken in decreased 17%, number of cats taken in increased 20%. Between 1996 and 2004, the euthanasia rate decreased from 65.3% to 56.8%, and the adoption rate increased from 24.5% to 33.6%. Number of dogs euthanatized decreased 39%, but number of cats euthanatized increased 14%. The proportion of agencies with a spay-neuter policy increased from 56% to 71%, and the proportion that maintained an association with a veterinarian increased from 39% to 80%. For dogs handled by county dog warden agencies, the odds of euthanasia were higher if the agency did not have a spay-neuter policy (odds ratio, 1.36).
Conclusions—Results suggest that the status of dogs handled by animal care and control agencies in Ohio improved between 1996 and 2004, but that the status of cats deteriorated.