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  • Author or Editor: Julie Nettifee-Osborne x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence and clinical features of cryptogenic epilepsy among dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—214 client-owned dogs with onset of epileptic seizures at ≥ 7 years of age.

Procedures—A diagnostic imaging database was searched for dogs with symptomatic or cryptogenic epilepsy. Signalment, seizure history, and diagnostic information were recorded. Information regarding seizure frequency, administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), owners' perceptions regarding quality of life, survival times, and causes of death for dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy was obtained via questionnaire. Variables were compared among dogs grouped according to diagnosis and age.

Results—45 (21%) dogs had a diagnosis of cryptogenic epilepsy, and 169 (79%) had symptomatic epilepsy. In dogs 7 to 9 years and ≥ 10 years of age at the time of seizure onset, 31 of 106 (29%) and 14 of 108 (13%), respectively, had a diagnosis of cryptogenic epilepsy. At last follow-up, most (40 [89%]) dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy were receiving ≥ 1 AED. Thirty-one of 37 (84%) dogs typically had ≤ 1 seizure/mo following hospital discharge. Death was confirmed in 20 (44%) dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy and was related to seizures or AEDs in 7 Median survival time from onset of seizures was 52 months for all dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy. Median quality-of-life score (scale, 1 [poor] to 10 [excellent]) indicated by 34 owners of dogs with cryptogenic epilepsy was 10 before diagnosis and initiation of AED treatment and 8 afterward.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cryptogenic epilepsy was diagnosed in a substantial proportion of dogs with an onset of epileptic seizures at ≥ 7 years of age. Seizure control was considered acceptable in most dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To measure pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam (LEV) after single-dose oral administration in healthy dogs and determine whether pharmacokinetics changed after repeated oral dosing.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Pharmacokinetics were calculated following administration of a single dose (mean, 21.7 mg/kg, PO; day 1) and after administration of the last dose following administration for 6 days (20.8 to 22.7 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h; days 2 to 7). Plasma LEV concentrations were determined by use of high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by use of a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption.

Results—Peak concentration occurred 0.6 hours after administration of the first dose, with an absorption half-life of 0.06 hours. Minimal accumulation occurred over the 7 days, with only a slight increase in total area under the concentration-versus-time curve from 268.52 ± 56.33 h·μg/mL (mean ± SD) to 289.31 ± 51.68 h·μg/mL after 7 days. Terminal half-life was 2.87 ± 0.21 hours after the first dose and 3.59 ± 0.82 hours after the last dose on day 7. Trough plasma concentrations were variable, depending on the time of day they were measured (morning trough concentration, 18.42 ± 5.16 μg/mL; midday trough concentration, 12.57 ± 4.34 μg/mL), suggesting a diurnal variation in drug excretion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the pharmacokinetics of LEV did not change appreciably after administration of multiple doses over 7 days. Administration of LEV at a dosage of 20 mg/kg, PO, every 8 hours to healthy dogs yielded plasma drug concentrations consistently within the therapeutic range established for LEV in humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of orally administered voriconazole in African grey parrots.

Animals—20 clinically normal Timneh African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus timneh).

Procedures—In single-dose trials, 12 parrots were each administered 6, 12, and 18 mg of voriconazole/kg orally and plasma concentrations of voriconazole were determined via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) was administered orally to 6 birds every 12 hours for 9 days; a control group (2 birds) received tap water. Treatment effects were assessed via observation, clinicopathologic analyses (3 assessments), and measurement of trough plasma voriconazole concentrations (2 assessments).

Results—Voriconazole's elimination half-life was short (1.1 to 1.6 hours). Higher doses resulted in disproportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration and area under the curve. Trough plasma voriconazole concentrations achieved in the multiple-dose trial were lower than those achieved after administration of single doses. Polyuria (the only adverse treatment effect) developed in treated and control birds but was more severe in the treatment group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In African grey parrots, voriconazole has dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and may induce its own metabolism. Oral administration of 12 to 18 mg of voriconazole/kg twice daily is a rational starting dose for treatment of African grey parrots infected with Aspergillus or other fungal organisms that have a minimal inhibitory concentration for voriconazole ≤ 0.4 μg/mL. Higher doses may be needed to maintain plasma voriconazole concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of various voriconazole treatment regimens in this species require investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research