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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Cortical bone concentrations of enrofloxacin were determined over time in dogs after sc administration of the drug. Nineteen healthy adult dogs were anesthetized and were given 2.5 or 5.0 mg of enrofloxacin/kg of body weight, sc. Serial serum and bone samples were obtained for determination of enrofloxacin concentrations at intervals until 8 hours after drug administration. Cortical bone samples were procured by surgical disarticulation of successive second phalanges. Additional cortical bone samples were taken from long bones in 4 dogs. Mean ± sd peak serum enrofloxacin concentration was 0.54 ± 0.10 μg/ml for the 2.5-mg/kg dosage and 0.97 ± 0.34 μg/ml for the 5.0-mg/kg dosage. Serum concentration was significantly higher than bone concentration for each dosage. Mean peak bone concentrations reached 29% of peak serum values: 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/g and 0.29 ± 0.09 μg/g for 2.5-mg/kg and 5.0-mg/kg dosages, respectively. Serum concentration for the 5.0-mg/kg dosage was significantly greater than that for the 2.5-mg/kg dosage for all times, whereas bone concentrations for the 5.0-mg/kg dosage were significantly higher at all times after 180 minutes. For the duration of the study, cortical bone concentrations of enrofloxacin at either dosage exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) for the Enterobacteriaceae, but reliably exceeded the mic for Staphylococcus sp only at the 5.0-mg/kg dosage. At no time did cortical bone concentrations of enrofloxacin exceed the mic for Pseudomonas aeruginosa at either dosage.

To validate extrapolation of data from the second phalanx to long bones and from anesthetized to awake dogs, 16 healthy dogs being euthanatized in unrelated studies were given 2.5 or 5.0 mg of enrofloxacin/kg, sc. These dogs were not anesthetized but were euthanatized at 60, 120, or 240 minutes after drug administration, and multiple cortical bone samples were taken. Antibiotic concentrations in the second phalanx were not significantly different from those in long bones. Comparison of enrofloxacin concentrations in cortical bone of awake and anesthetized dogs suggested no differences between groups. We concluded that general anesthesia and use of the antibiotic concentrations in the second phalanx as representative of those in long bones did not affect results of this study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe clinical features of dogs < 2 years old with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) and to evaluate breed, sex, and body weight as risk factors.

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

201 dogs < 2 years old with rupture of the CCL and 804 age-matched control dogs.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for breed, sex, and body weight, and results were compared with results of age-matched control dogs.

Results

Breed predisposition was detected for Neapolitan Mastiff, Akita, Saint Bernard, Rottweiler, Mastiff, Newfoundland, Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Labrador Retriever, and American Staffordshire Terrier. Increased risk was detected for neutered males and neutered females, compared with sexually intact males and sexually intact females, respectively. Differences in prevalence of rupture of the CCL were not detected between all males and females, sexually intact males and sexually intact females, or neutered males and neutered females. Body weights of dogs with ruptured CCL were significantly greater than those of control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Several large breeds of dogs are predisposed to rupture of the CCL at a young age. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:811–814)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare short- and long-term complications after tenectomy of the deep digital flexor tendons or onychectomy and owner satisfaction with these surgical procedures.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Animals

20 cats undergoing tenectomy and 18 cats undergoing onychectomy.

Procedure

Cats undergoing tenectomy or onychectomy were monitored for a minimum of 5 months to enable comparison of type and frequency of complications. Owner satisfaction was also assessed.

Results

Cats undergoing tenectomy had significantly lower pain scores 24 hours after surgery, compared with those undergoing onychectomy. Type and frequency of other complications did not differ between procedures. Owners appeared to be less satisfied with the tenectomy procedure than with the onychectomy procedure, although scores for satisfaction with each procedure were not significantly different.

Clinical Implications

Owners should be aware of the high complication rate for both procedures and of the need for constant trimming of claws of cats that have undergone tenectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:370-373)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association