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  • Author or Editor: Julie M. Byron x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate markers of in vivo platelet function (urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 [11-dehydroTXB2] and 2,3-dinorTXB2) and assess their response to administration of 2 commonly used dosages of aspirin in healthy dogs.

Animals—20 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Urine was collected prior to aspirin administration and on the morning following the last evening administration. Twenty dogs received aspirin (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 7 consecutive doses. After a washout period of 5 months, 10 dogs received a single dose of aspirin (10 mg/kg, PO). Concentrations of urinary thromboxane metabolites 11-dehydroTXB2 and 2,3-dinorTXB2 were measured via ELISA, and values were normalized to urine creatinine concentration.

Results—Median baseline 11-dehydroTXB2 concentrations were 0.38 ng/mg of creatinine (range, 0.15 to 1.13 ng/mg). Mean ± SD baseline 2 at a 3-dinorTXB2 concentrations were 6.75 ± 2.77 ng/mg of creatinine. Administration of aspirin at a dosage of 1 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours for 7 days did not significantly decrease urinary 11-dehydroTXB2 concentration, but administration of the single aspirin dose of 10 mg/kg did significantly decrease 11-dehydroTXB2 concentration by a median of 45.5% (range, 28.2% to 671%). Administration of the 1 mg/kg aspirin dosage significantly decreased urinary 2,3-dinorTXB2 concentration by a mean ± SD of 33.0 ± 23.7%. Administration of the single aspirin dose of 10 mg/kg also significantly decreased 2,3-dinorTXB2 concentration by a mean ± SD of 46.7 ± 12.6%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aspirin administration (1 mg/kg/d) may be insufficient for reliable platelet inhibition in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the ratio of collagen type III to collagen type I in the periurethral tissues of sexually intact and neutered female dogs.

Animals—8 neutered and 34 sexually intact female dogs.

Procedures—Tissues were obtained from female dogs euthanized for non–urinary tract–related reasons. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody detection of type I and collagen type III was performed by use of confocal microscopy on 2 periurethral samples from each dog, and the ratios of collagen type III to type I area fraction and total area were determined.

Results—No significant differences were detected in the collagen ratios of periurethral tissues between sexually intact and neutered female dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In contrast to differences in periurethral collagen content found between pre- and postmenopausal women, such differences may not occur in dogs. This implies that changes in pelvic organ support structures may not play an important role in urinary incontinence in neutered female dogs. Further evaluation is needed to determine the role of age on collagen and pelvic organ support structures in the pathogenesis of canine urinary incontinence.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in cases of clinical feline urinary tract infection (UTI) and subclinical bacteriuria and investigate the in vitro effects of E coli strain Nissle 1917 on isolate growth.

ANIMALS

40 cats with positive E coli culture results for urine collected during routine evaluation.

PROCEDURES

Characterization of UPEC isolates was performed by PCR-based phylotype analysis and serotyping. Nissle 1917 effects on growth inhibition and competitive overgrowth against UPEC isolates were evaluated in vitro using a plate-based competition assay.

RESULTS

Feline phylogroups were similar to previous human and feline UPEC studies, with most of the isolates belonging to phylogroup A (42.5%), B2 (37.5%), and D (15.0%). Fifty-two percent of isolates were found to be resistant to antimicrobials, with 19% of these being multidrug resistant (MDR). Nissle 1917 adversely affected the growth of 82.5% of all isolates and 100% of MDR isolates in vitro. The median zone of inhibition was 3.33 mm (range, 1.67 to 10.67 mm). Thirteen isolates were affected via competitive overgrowth and 20 via growth inhibition.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

UPEC isolates from cats were similar in phylogroup analysis to human and dog isolates. The in vitro effects of Nissle 1917 on UPEC warrant additional studies to determine if similar results can be duplicated in vivo.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To investigate the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in canine idiopathic diarrhea and urinary tract infections.

ANIMALS/SAMPLES

The utility of EcN was explored in a 3-phase study from March 2017 to June 2020. Eighty-nine dogs with idiopathic diarrhea were included in phase 1, 3 healthy dogs were included in phase 2, and uropathogenic E coli (UPEC) isolates from 38 dogs with urinary tract infections were included in phase 3.

PROCEDURES

In phase 1, dogs with diarrhea were prospectively enrolled in a randomized study to receive EcN (108 EcN bacteria/mL; < 10 kg received 5 mL/dose, 10 to 25 kg received 10 mL/dose, or > 25 kg received 15 mL/dose) or placebo for 3 days, followed by a 15-day observation phase. In phase 2, healthy dogs received EcN as described in phase 1, with feces analyzed for E coli populations and microbiome composition at days 0, 3, and 7. In phase 3, EcN efficacy was tested by in vitro plate assay against UPEC isolates.

RESULTS

Median duration of abnormal stool consistency, time to response, and duration of diarrhea were shorter for dogs that received EcN (5.0, 3.0, and 2.0 days, respectively) versus the placebo (7.0, 5.0, and 4.0 days, respectively) (P = .21, P = .05, and P = .039, respectively). EcN induced shifts in E coli diversity in healthy dogs while having minimal impact on overall microbiome structure. Furthermore, 68% of the canine UPEC isolates were susceptible to EcN in vitro.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

EcN improved the treatment of idiopathic diarrhea, colonized the gastrointestinal tract during the trial, and displayed in vitro competition with UPEC.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research