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To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone after IV or IM administration to isoflurane-anesthetized chickens.


6 healthy adult Hy-Line hens.


In a randomized crossover-design study, methadone (6 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to isoflurane-anesthetized chickens with a 1-week washout period between experiments. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at predetermined time points up to 480 minutes after methadone administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and appropriate compartmental models were fit to the plasma concentration-versus-time data. Cardiorespiratory variables were compared between treatments and over time with mixed-effect repeated-measures analysis.


A 3-compartment model best described the changes in plasma methadone concentration after IV or IM administration. Estimated typical values for volumes of distribution were 692 mL/kg for the central compartment and 2,439 and 2,293 mL/kg for the first and second peripheral compartments, respectively, with metabolic clearance of 23.3 mL/kg/min and first and second distributional clearances of 556.4 and 51.8 mL/kg/min, respectively. Typical bioavailability after IM administration was 79%. Elimination half-life was 177 minutes, and maximum plasma concentration after IM administration was 950 ng/mL. Heart rate was mildly decreased at most time points beginning 5 minutes after IV or IM drug administration.


Disposition of methadone in isoflurane-anesthetized chickens was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance, with high bioavailability after IM administration. Additional studies are warranted to assess pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone in awake chickens.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine hepatotoxicity of stanozolol in cats and to identify clinicopathologic and histopathologic abnormalities in cats with stanozololinduced hepatotoxicosis.

Design—Clinical trial and case series.

Animals—12 healthy cats, 6 cats with chronic renal failure, and 3 cats with gingivitis and stomatitis.

Procedures—Healthy cats and cats with renal failure were treated with stanozolol (25 mg, IM, on the first day, then 2 mg, PO, q 12 h) for 4 weeks. Cats with gingivitis were treated with stanozolol at a dosage of 1 mg, PO, every 24 hours.

Results—Most healthy cats and cats with renal failure developed marked inappetence, groomed less, and were less active within 7 to 10 days after initiation of stanozolol administration. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was significantly increased in 14 of 18 cats after stanozolol administration, but serum alkaline phosphatase activity was mildly increased in only 3. Four cats with serum ALT activity > 1,000 U/L after only 2 weeks of stanozolol administration had coagulopathies; administration of vitamin K resolved the coagulopathy in 3 of the 4 within 48 hours. All 18 cats survived, and hepatic enzyme activities were normal in all cats tested more than 4 weeks after stanozolol administration was discontinued. Two of the 3 cats with gingivitis developed evidence of severe hepatic failure 2 to 3 months after initiation of stanozolol treatment; both cats developed coagulopathies. Histologic evaluation of hepatic biopsy specimens from 5 cats revealed diffuse hepatic lipidosis and cholestasis without evidence of hepatocellular necrosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that stanozolol is hepatotoxic in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:681–684)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association