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Abstract

Objective—To identify underlying medical conditions in cats with a presumptive diagnosis of psychogenic alopecia.

Design—Case series.

Animals—21 adult cats referred with a presumptive diagnosis of psychogenic alopecia.

Procedures—A detailed behavior and dermatologic questionnaire was completed by the primary caregiver, and complete behavioral and dermatologic examinations were performed. A standard diagnostic testing protocol that included cytologic examination of skin scrapings, fungal culture of hairs, evaluation of responses to parasiticides and an exclusion diet, assessment for atopy and endocrinopathies, and histologic examination of skin biopsy specimens was used to establish a definitive diagnosis in all cats. Cats that did not respond to an elimination diet were treated with methylprednisolone acetate to determine whether pruritus was a factor.

Results—Medical causes of pruritus were identified in 16 (76%) cats. Only 2 (10%) cats were found to have only psychogenic alopecia, and an additional 3 (14%) cats had a combination of psychogenic alopecia and a medical cause of pruritus. An adverse food reaction was diagnosed in 12 (57%) cats and was suspected in an additional 2. All cats with histologic evidence of inflammation in skin biopsy specimens were determined to have a medical condition, but of 6 cats without histologic abnormalities, 4 had an adverse food reaction, atopy, or a combination of the 2, and only 2 had psychogenic alopecia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that psychogenic alopecia is overdiagnosed in cats. Thorough diagnostic testing should be done before ascribing a behavioral cause to hair loss in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

One indication for referral of horses to veterinary hospitals is for diagnosis of the microbiologic cause of pneumonia, particularly when the initial treatment fails. Although endoscopic methods have long been available for microbiologic sample collection, accuracy of these methods under these conditions have not been studied in detail. We compared the bacteria isolated from samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) with those obtained by protected catheter brush (pcb) from foals with unilateral pneumonia induced by inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae. As part of previously described clinical trials, foals were administered antimicrobial therapy im (n = 15) or vehicle im (n = 7), and collection of distal airway secretion samples was conducted during the treatment period. Sensitivity and specificity of the sample collection methods were assessed by comparison of the isolates from bal or pcb samples with isolates from tissue of the inoculated lung lobe, which was the most severely affected lung region. Sensitivity and specificity of bal for recovery of K pneumoniae (challenge strain) and Streptococcus zooepidemicus (common secondary pathogen) was 90 and 69%, respectively, compared with 76 and 85%, respectively, for the pcb method. Sensitivity was significantly (P = 0.03) higher for bal (100%) than for pcb (69%) for recovery of K pneumoniae (P = 0.03) from lungs. However, difference in the sensitivity of these methods for recovery of S zooepidemicus was not significant. In conclusion, bal was a more reliable method for recovery of bacteria from the lungs in chronically infected foals that received antimicrobial treatment.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Efficacy of sulbactam, a β-lactamase inhibitor, in combination with ampicillin, was evaluated for treatment of experimentally induced pneumonia caused by β-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Infection was experimentally induced in 18 healthy weanling foals that were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups: sulbactam plus ampicillin (s/a, 3.3 and 6.6 mg/kg of body weight, respectively), ampicillin (6.6 mg/kg), or vehicle only. Foals were treated daily for 7 days; the observer was unaware of treatment status. Compared with ampicillin and vehicle, treatment with s/a resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in severity of pneumonia, with regard to bronchoalveolar lavage cytologic findings (decreased total cell and neutrophil numbers, and increased lymphocyte numbers) and extent of macroscopic lesions in lung tissue of the noninoculated regions. Marked trends toward improvement of s/a-treated foals were observed for quantitative results of bacteriologic culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples (P < 0.07), macroscopic pathologic features of the whole lung (P < 0.1), and histopathologic variables (P < 0.07), compared with ampicillin- and vehicle-treated foals. Treatment effects were not observed for radiographic, hematologic, and blood gas abnormalities that resulted from infection. In conclusion, the combination of sulbactam plus ampicillin was found to have synergistic effects in vivo, to reduce the extent and severity of experimentally induced gram-negative lung infection in foals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2016 in the United States.

DESIGN Observational study based on passive surveillance data.

ANIMALS All animals submitted for rabies testing in the United States during 2016.

PROCEDURES State and territorial public health programs provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2016. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases.

RESULTS During 2016, 50 states and Puerto Rico reported 4,910 rabid animals to the CDC, representing a 10.9% decrease from the 5,508 rabid animals reported in 2015. Of the 4,910 cases of animal rabies, 4,487 (91.4%) involved wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,646 (33.5%) bats, 1,403 (28.6%) raccoons, 1,031 (21.0%) skunks, 313 (6.4%) foxes, 257 (5.2%) cats, 70 (1.4%) cattle, and 58 (1.2%) dogs. There was a 4.6% decrease in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2016, compared with the number submitted in 2015. No human rabies deaths were reported in 2016.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2015 in the United States.

DESIGN

Observational study based on passive surveillance data.

ANIMALS

All animals submitted for rabies testing in the United States during 2015.

PROCEDURES

State and territorial public health programs provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2015. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases.

RESULTS

During 2015, 50 states and Puerto Rico reported 5,508 rabid animals to the CDC, representing an 8.7% decrease from the 6,033 rabid animals reported in 2014. Of the 5,508 cases of animal rabies, 5,088 (92.4%) involved wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,704 (30.9%) bats, 1,619 (29.4%) raccoons, 1,365 (24.8%) skunks, 325 (5.9%) foxes, 244 (4.4%) cats, 85 (1.5%) cattle, and 67 (1.2%) dogs. There was a 4.1% decrease in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2015, compared with the number submitted in 2014. Three human rabies deaths were reported in 2015, compared with only 1 in 2014. A 65-year-old man in Massachusetts was bitten by a rabid dog while abroad. A 77-year-old woman in Wyoming had contact with a bat. A 54-year-old man in Puerto Rico was bitten by a mongoose. The only connection among these 3 cases was that none received postexposure prophylaxis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1117–1130)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association