OBJECTIVE To assess stakeholders' expectations regarding new veterinary graduates' ability to perform various diagnostic and surgical procedures.
DESIGN Cross-sectional survey.
SAMPLE Veterinary students, recent graduates, clinical veterinary college faculty, and general practitioners at or from AVMA Council on Education–accredited colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States and Caribbean.
PROCEDURES Respondents rated how proficient they expected new graduates, on their first day of practice, to be in 8 diagnostic procedures and the degree of independence they expected of new graduates in 8 surgical procedures.
RESULTS Response rate was 9% (235/2,500) for practitioners, 12% (151/1,275) for faculty members, 14% (70/500) for recent graduates, and 15% (1,731/11,474) for students. All 4 respondent subgroups expected that new graduates would be able to adequately perform a fine-needle aspirate of a subcutaneous mass (96% to 98% expected new graduates to be able to adequately perform this procedure) and a cystocentesis (93% to 97% expected new graduates to be able to adequately perform this procedure). The greatest variability in responses was noted for performing hand ties, ultrasound-guided liver biopsy, and arthrocentesis. Most respondents expected new graduates to be able to independently perform a canine castration (82% to 94% expecting independence), feline subcutaneous mass removal (66% to 75% expecting independence), and canine ovariohysterectomy (65% to 89% expecting independence).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results revealed a diversity of opinion regarding expected proficiency for new graduates performing various diagnostic and surgical procedures. Findings may help colleges of veterinary medicine refine their curricula by providing end points for student training.
To determine whether addition of an optional clinical skills laboratory (OCSL) to the traditional surgery curriculum would affect total surgery time or incision closure time in veterinary students performing ovariohysterectomy of a dog during a third-year surgery course.
Retrospective and prospective study of veterinary student attendance at OCSL sessions and student performance during the third-year surgery course.
Students from the classes of 2012, 2013, and 2014 at the Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine.
For all students, total surgery time and incision closure time were recorded when students performed an ovariohysterectomy of a dog during their third-year live-animal surgery course. Times were analyzed to identify differences among classes and determine whether times were associated with number of OCSL sessions attended, previous experience performing ovariohysterectomies, or enrollment in an elective clinical skills course.
Total surgery and incision closure times were not significantly different between students in the class of 2012 (no access to the OCSL prior to the third-year surgery course) and students in the class of 2013 (ie, access to 4 OCSL sessions during the spring semester prior to the third-year surgery course). However, times were significantly shorter for students in the class of 2014 (ie, students who had access to OCSL sessions during the 3 semesters prior to the third-year surgery course) than for students in the other 2 classes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that attendance in the OCSL sessions was associated with improvements in surgical performance, as reflected in faster total surgery and incision closure times while performing an ovariohysterectomy during the third-year surgery course.
Objective—To compare the analgesic efficacy of administration of butorphanol tartrate, phenylbutazone, or both drugs in combination in colts undergoing routine castration.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—36 client-owned colts.
Procedures—Horses received treatment with butorphanol alone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], IM, prior to surgery and then q 4 h for 24 hours), phenylbutazone alone (4.4 mg/kg [2.0 mg/lb], IV, prior to surgery and then 2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 3 days), or butorphanol and phenylbutazone at the aforementioned dosages (12 horses/group). For single-drug–treated horses, appropriate placebos were administered to balance treatment protocols among groups. All horses were anesthetized, and lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into each testis. Physical and physiological variables, plasma cortisol concentration, body weight, and water consumption were assessed before and at intervals after surgery, and induction of and recovery from anesthesia were subjectively characterized. Observers assessed signs of pain by use of a visual analogue scale and a numerical rating scale.
Results—Significant changes in gastrointestinal sounds, fecal output, and plasma cortisol concentrations were evident in each treatment group over time, compared with preoperative values. At any time point, assessed variables and signs of pain did not differ significantly among groups, although the duration of recumbency after surgery was longest for the butorphanol-phenylbutazone–treated horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—With intratesticular injections of lidocaine, administration of butorphanol to anesthetized young horses undergoing routine castration had the same apparent analgesic effect as phenylbutazone treatment. Combined butorphanolphenylbutazone treatment was not apparently superior to either drug used alone.
Objective—To describe the location and severity of deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) lesions diagnosed by means of high-field-strength MRI in horses and to identify variables associated with return to activity following medical treatment.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of horses with DDFT injury diagnosed with MRI over a 10-year period (2000–2010) and treated medically (intrasynovial administration of corticosteroids and sodium hyaluronan, rest and rehabilitation, or both) were reviewed. History, signalment, use, results of lameness examination and diagnostic local anesthesia, MRI findings, and treatment details were recorded. Outcome was obtained by telephone interview or follow-up examination. Horses were grouped by predictor variables and analyzed with logistic regression to identify significant effects.
Results—Overall, of 97 horses available for follow-up (median time to follow-up, 5 years; range, 1 to 12 years), 59 (61%) returned to activity for a mean duration of 22.6 months (median, 18 months; range, 3 to 72 months), with 25 (26%) still sound at follow-up. Of horses with mild, moderate, and severe injury, 21 of 29 (72%), 20 of 36 (56%), and 18 of 32 (56%), respectively, returned to use. Horses treated with intrasynovial corticosteroid injection and 6 months of rest and rehabilitation returned to use for a significantly longer duration than did horses treated without rest. Western performance horses returned to use for a significantly longer duration than did English performance horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggested that outcome for horses with DDFT injuries treated medically depended on injury severity, presence of concurrent injury to other structures in the foot, type of activity, and owner compliance with specific treatment recommendations. Although some horses successfully returned to prior activity, additional treatment options are needed to improve outcome in horses with severe injuries and to improve long-term prognosis.