Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Julianne E. McCready x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify potential risk factors for death following IV or intraosseous (IO) administration of contrast medium in birds undergoing CT scans.

ANIMALS

120 birds that underwent 134 contrast-enhanced CT scans.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of birds of any species that underwent a CT scan which included administration of nonionic iodinated contrast medium from June 2013 to February 2020 were included. Information on birds and use of contrast medium was extracted from the medical records as well as information on deaths following IV or IO administration of contrast medium.

RESULTS

6 birds died shortly following administration of contrast medium. Necropsies were performed in 3 birds (2 cockatiels and 1 macaw), and all had lesions associated with the respiratory tract. When body weight was used as a binary variable to compare odds of death between small birds (≤ 150 g [0.33 lb]) and large birds (> 150 g), small birds had a 97-fold increased odds (OR, 97.5; 95% CI, 9.8 to 966.0) of dying following contrast medium administration. Following 131 CT scans with contrast medium administration (3 scans were excluded because of perivascular or subcutaneous leakage of contract medium), small birds had a mortality rate of 45.4% (5/11), compared with a mortality rate of 0.8% (1/120) for large (> 150 g) birds. Other variables (ie, sex, age, anesthesia or sedation, sedation protocol, and type of contrast medium) were not significantly associated with death after contrast medium administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although the administration of contrast medium cannot be conclusively confirmed as the cause of death in these birds, the high mortality rate for small birds coupled with the temporality of the event following contrast medium administration justifies the cautious use of contrast medium in small sick psittacine birds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:77–83)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and treatment outcomes for companion rats (Rattus norvegicus) diagnosed with lymphoma.

ANIMALS

All rats that presented to the exotics service and underwent postmortem examination during the time period of 2008 through 2020 were evaluated.

PROCEDURES

The medical records of 35 rats were evaluated for an ante- or postmortem diagnosis of lymphoma. Cases with a diagnosis of lymphoma were further reviewed for signalment, presenting complaint, clinical signs observed on physical exam, diagnostic testing performed, and treatments administered. Postmortem gross and histologic findings were reviewed.

RESULTS

7 out of 35 rats were diagnosed with lymphoma, either ante-mortem or postmortem. The most common presenting complaint that was present in all rats with lymphoma was respiratory abnormalities. Five out of 7 rats had radiographs performed, all of which had abnormalities noted in the thoracic cavity including pulmonary nodules, cranial mediastinal widening, or alteration to the cardiac silhouette. Diagnosis via cytologic aspirates was performed in 2 cases and each was diagnostic for lymphoma; however, even with treatment, survival time following initiation of chemotherapy was short (less than or equal to 24 days). The definitive diagnosis in the remainder of the cases was via necropsy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggest that lymphoma is a common neoplastic disease in rats and a thorough diagnostic work-up is indicated in any rat that presents for general malaise or respiratory signs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare stress markers, gastrointestinal motility, and behavioral indicators of pain between guinea pigs undergoing pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) and control guinea pigs.

ANIMALS

Fourteen 4- to 5-month-old intact female Hartley guinea pigs.

PROCEDURES

Guinea pigs were randomized to receive insufflation or serve as controls (anesthesia and abdominal catheter placement without insufflation), with 7 animals/group. Insufflated animals underwent 6 mm Hg of CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 30 minutes. Afterward, results for vital signs, blood glucose, fecal cortisol, appetite, fecal output, and behaviors (via video recording) were compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

There was no difference between groups and over time for body temperature, heart rate, fecal output in grams, pellets consumed, blood glucose, and fecal cortisol. Guinea pigs that underwent insufflation had significantly more fecal pellets at 36 hours after the procedure. Several behaviors were expressed similarly between groups and over time, such as body turns, incomplete movement, rearing, lying down, drinking, and hiding. Coprophagy occurred less often in the insufflated versus noninsufflated group at 12 h postprocedure but was similar between groups at other time points. At 60 hours after the procedure, insufflated animals spent less time squinting compared to noninsufflated animals. Other behaviors were differentially expressed over time but not between treatments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall, there were no major differences in appetite, stress markers, and behaviors between insufflated and control guinea pigs. CO2 insufflation did not appear to cause undue pain or stress in guinea pigs and may be a reasonable technique to use during laparoscopy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate pneumoperitoneal volumes (laparoscopic working space) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) undergoing pneumoperitoneum via carbon dioxide insufflation at different intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) (4, 6, and 8 mm Hg) and recumbencies (dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral).

ANIMALS

Six 3- to 4-month-old sexually intact female Hartley guinea pigs.

PROCEDURES

Guinea pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and had an abdominal insufflation catheter placed. A baseline abdominal CT scan was performed. Guinea pigs underwent insufflation, with each IAP given in a random order for 10 to 15 minutes with a washout period of 5 minutes between pressures. Abdominal CT scans were acquired at each IAP and at each recumbency. Pneumoperitoneal volumes were calculated using software.

RESULTS

Increases in IAP increased working space significantly (P < .001). The 6- and 8-mm Hg pressures increased working space from 4 mm Hg by 7.3% and 19.8%, respectively. Recumbent positioning (P = .60) and body weight (P = .73) did not affect working space. Order of IAP had a significant (P = .006) effect on working space. One of the guinea pigs experienced oxygen desaturation and bradycardia at 6- and 8-mm Hg IAP.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although an increased working space occurred at 6 and 8 mm Hg compared to 4 mm Hg, further research is needed concerning the cardiovascular effects of pneumoperitoneum in guinea pigs to determine whether those higher IAPs are safe in this species. An IAP of 6 mm Hg can be considered for laparoscopic cannula placement, followed by a lower IAP for laparoscopic procedures.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research