Objective—To determine whether ischemia and flunixin
affect in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) absorption
in samples of the jejunum of horses.
Procedure—Horses were anesthetized, a midline
celiotomy was performed, and the jejunum was located.
Two 30-cm sections of jejunum (60 cm apart)
were selected. One segment was designated as control
tissue; ischemia was induced in the other segment
for 120 minutes. Horses were then euthanatized.
Mucosa from each jejunal segment was mounted
on Ussing chambers and treated with or without
flunixin. Tissues from 6 horses were used to assess
permeability to radiolabeled LPS; mucosal samples
from the remaining 6 horses were incubated with
fluorescent-labeled LPS (FITC-LPS) and examined histologically.
Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and production of LPS-binding protein (LBP) were
assessed as indicators of mucosal response to LPS.
Results—Ischemia significantly increased mucosal
permeability to LPS, but by 180 minutes, the mucosa
was not more permeable than control tissue. Flunixin
treatment adversely affected intestinal barrier function
throughout the experiment but did not result in
increased mucosal permeability to LPS. Compared
with control tissues, LBP production was increased
by ischemia and reduced by exposure to LPS. In
ischemic tissue, FITC-LPS entered the lamina propria
but TNF-α was produced on the mucosal side only,
indicating little response to the absorbed LPS.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ischemia
increased LPS passage across equine jejunal mucosa.
Flunixin delayed mucosal recovery but did not exacerbate
LPS absorption. Evaluation of the clinical importance
of flunixin-associated delayed mucosal recovery
requires further in vivo investigation. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To determine whether carpal brace application is a viable treatment for dogs with unilateral carpal ligament instability.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—14 client-owned athletic dogs.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs treated with a brace for unilateral carpal valgus or varus instability between August 2008 and August 2011. Treatment included passive motion and isometric strengthening exercises during brace application.
Results—Of the 14 dogs, 11 were considered to have returned to normal function; 11 of 12 dogs returned to agility competition. Carpal measurements before treatment indicated the affected limb had significantly greater valgus measurements (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°), significantly greater varus measurements (median, 15°; range, 15° to 25°), and significantly less flexion (median, 37.5°; range, 30° to 45°), compared with results for the contralateral carpus. Long-term monitoring revealed no differences in measurements between affected and contralateral limbs. Valgus measurements of the affected carpus at brace removal (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) and at the end of long-term monitoring (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) were significantly lower than measurements before treatment (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°). Dogs had significantly lower lameness scores (assessed on a scale of 0 to 5) at brace removal (median, 0; range, 0) and at the end of monitoring (median, 0; range, 0 to 2), compared with scores before treatment (median, 3; range, 1 to 3).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of a carpal brace resulted in improved stability and resolution or reduction in lameness in dogs with carpal ligament instability.
Objective—To map the equine pelvis using ultrasonography,
validated by use of computed tomography
(CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and
measurements of frozen cadaver slices.
Animals—6 ponies and 6 horses.
Procedure—Ultrasonographic examination of the
pelvis was performed on 6 clinically normal ponies.
Measurements were obtained for imaged structures.
Computed tomography, MRI, and measurements of
frozen sections were performed after death and used
to verify measurements. Linear regression determined
the degree of correlation between measurements
obtained ultrasonographically and the other modalities.
Six clinically normal horses were then examined by use
of ultrasonography. For each structure measured mean,
SD, and range were calculated.
Results—Data obtained from ponies revealed high
correlations between ultrasonographic findings and
those of CT, MRI, and frozen section measurements
(r2 = 0.97, r2 = 0.99, and r2 = 0.99, respectively).
Differences between structures measured on
each side of the pelvis were not significant. Variation
in size of structures was not associated with weight
of horses. A correlation was not found between
weight of horses and ponies and size of structure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography
can be used to accurately measure and
evaluate the musculoskeletal structures of the pelvis
of horses. The use of CT, MRI, and measurements of
frozen sections provided a means of validating the
ultrasonographic measurements. Reference range
values determined in our study can be used to evaluate
horses with suspected pelvic disease. (Am J Vet
Objective—To examine the effects of flunixin meglumine
and etodolac treatment on recovery of ischemicinjured
equine jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of reperfusion.
Procedure—Jejunum was exposed to 2 hours of
ischemia during anesthesia. Horses received saline
(0.9% NaCl) solution (12 mL, IV, q 12 h), flunixin meglumine
(1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or etodolac (23 mg/kg, IV,
q 12 h). Tissue specimens were obtained from
ischemic-injured and nonischemic jejunum immediately
after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery from
ischemia. Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and
transepithelial flux of tritium-labeled mannitol measured
mucosal permeability. Denuded villous surface
area and mean epithelial neutrophil count per mm2
were calculated. Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase
(COX)-1 and -2 was performed. Pharmacokinetics
of flunixin and etodolac and eicosanoid concentrations
Results—Ischemic-injured tissue from horses treated
with flunixin and etodolac had significantly lower TER
and increased permeability to mannitol, compared with
that from horses treated with saline solution. Epithelial
denudation after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery
was not significantly different among treatments. Both
COX-1 and -2 were expressed in ischemic-injured and
nonischemic tissues. Ischemia caused significant
upregulation of both COX isoforms. Eicosanoid concentrations
were significantly lower in tissues from flunixin
and etodolac-treated horses, compared with that
from horses treated with saline solution.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flunixin and
etodolac treatment retarded recovery of intestinal
barrier function in jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of
reperfusion, whereas tissues from horses treated
with saline solution recovered baseline values of TER
and permeability to mannitol. (Am J Vet Res