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  • Author or Editor: Julia T. Blue x
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Abstract

Objective—To examine clinical features, laboratory test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and idiopathic nonregenerative immune-mediated anemia (NRIMA).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 dogs with severe nonregenerative anemia.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs determined to have PRCA, NRIMA, or ineffective erythropoiesis on the basis of bone marrow analysis between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion were ≥ 5- day history of severe nonregenerative anemia (Hct < 20%; < 60.0 X 103 reticulocytes/µl) with no underlying diseases. Information was retrieved on signalment, clinical signs, laboratory test results, treatment, and outcome.

Results—Median age of the dogs was 6.5 years. Spayed females and Labrador Retrievers were significantly overrepresented. Median Hct was 11% with no evidence of regeneration (median, 1.5 X 103 reticulocytes/ µl). Direct Coombs' test results were positive in 57% of dogs. Biochemical abnormalities included hyperferremia and high percentage saturation of transferrin. Bone marrow findings ranged from PRCA (5%) to erythroid hyperplasia (55%). Myelofibrosis was common. Dogs were treated with immunosuppressive drugs and the response was complete, partial, and poor in 55, 18, and 27% of the dogs, respectively. Mortality rate was 28%.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—An immunemediated pathogenesis should be considered in dogs with severe, nonregenerative anemia, normal WBC and platelet counts, hyperferremia, mild clinical signs, and no evidence of underlying disease. Bone marrow findings range from the rare PRCA to erythroid hyperplasia. Myelofibrosis is often detected in affected dogs and may prevent bone marrow aspiration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1429–1436)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association