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- Author or Editor: Julia M. Klauer x
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Objective—To compare the radiographic appearance of small and large intestines of cats with various medical conditions and create a quantitative index for interpretation of intestinal diameters on radiographic views of the abdomen.
Design—Retrospective cohort study.
Animals—74 cats that underwent abdominal radiography.
Procedures—Cats were assigned to 1 of 4 diagnosis categories: no gastrointestinal tract disease (n = 20), nonobstructive gastrointestinal tract disease (32), linear foreign body (LFB; 11), and small intestinal mechanical obstruction not caused by an LFB (11). Abdominal radiographs were evaluated without knowledge of history or diagnosis. Maximum and minimum external small intestine diameter (SID) and colon diameter (CD) were compared; dorsoventral and mediolateral measurements of the cranial end plate of L2 (VEL2) and L5 vertebrae were com-pared. Dorsoventral height of VEL2 from lateral radiographic views was used to determine maximum-SID:VEL2 and maximum-CD:VEL2 ratios. Gas patterns were evaluated.
Results—Nonobstructive gastrointestinal tract disease was more likely than obstruction until a maximum-SID:VEL2 ratio > 2.0. At a maximum-SID:VEL2 ratio of 2.5, probability of a disease not related to the intestinal tract was < 4%. At a maximum-SID:VEL2 ratio of 3.0, probability of a mechanical intestinal obstruction was > 70%. When the maximum-CD:VEL2 ratio was 2.0, probability of LFB was 50%; as the maximum-CD:VEL2 ratio increased beyond 2.0, likelihood of LFB decreased. Both gas pattern and CD correlated with diagnosis category.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Normalizing ratios of maximum-SID:VEL2 and maximum-CD:VEL2 obtained from measurements on lateral radiographic views of the abdomen in cats were related to diagnosis category.
Objective—To evaluate the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine HCl administered IM on thermal thresholds in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—14 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
Procedures—3 doses of nalbuphine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, IM) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were evaluated in a blinded complete crossover experimental design by use of foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus. Baseline data on thermal threshold were generated 1 hour before administration of nalbuphine or saline solution; thermal threshold measurements were obtained 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration.
Results—Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the thermal threshold (mean change, 2.4°C), compared with results for the control treatment, and significantly changed thermal threshold for up to 3 hours, compared with baseline results (mean change, 2.6° to 3.8°C). Higher doses of nalbuphine did not significantly change thermal thresholds, compared with results for the control treatment, but had a significant effect, compared with baseline results, for up to 3 and 1.5 hours after administration, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a thermal noxious stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Higher doses of nalbuphine did not result in significantly increased thermal thresholds or a longer duration of action and would be expected to result in less analgesic effect than lower doses. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine in psittacine species.
Objective—To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals—8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex.
Procedures—Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software.
Results—Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.
Objective—To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures.
Animals—15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Procedures—Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood.
Results—Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.
Objective—To evaluate injection of microcrystalline sodium urate (MSU) for inducing articular pain in green-cheeked conures (Pyrrhura molinae) and the analgesic efficacy of liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate (LEBT) by use of weight load data, behavioral scores, and fecal corticosterone concentration.
Procedures—In a crossover study, conures were randomly assigned to receive LEBT (15 mg/kg) or liposomal vehicle subsequent to experimental induction of arthritis or sham injection. The MSU was injected into 1 tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal (intertarsal) joint to induce arthritis (time 0). Weight-bearing load and behavioral scores were determined at 0, 2, 6, 26, and 30 hours.
Results—MSU injection into 1 intertarsal joint caused a temporary decrease in weight bearing on the affected limb. Treatment of arthritic conures with LEBT resulted in significantly more weight bearing on the arthritic limb than treatment with vehicle. Administration of vehicle to arthritic conures caused a decrease in activity and feeding behaviors during the induction phase of arthritis, but as the arthritis resolved, there was a significant increase in voluntary activity at 30 hours and feeding behaviors at 26 and 30 hours, compared with results for LEBT treatment of arthritic birds. Treatment with LEBT or vehicle in conures without arthritis resulted in similar measurements for weight bearing and voluntary and motivated behaviors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Experimental induction of arthritis in conures was a good method for evaluating tonic pain. Weight-bearing load was the most sensitive measure of pain associated with induced arthritis. Pain associated with MSU-induced arthritis was alleviated by administration of LEBT.
Objective—To evaluate the microcrystalline sodium urate (MSU) method for inducing arthritis in parrots and to compare the analgesic efficacy of long-acting liposome-encapsulated butorphanol (LEBT), carprofen, or a combination of both.
Animals—20 Hispaniolan parrots.
Procedures—MSU was injected into a tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal (intertarsal) joint to induce arthritis (time 0). Four treatments were compared (LEBT [15 mg/kg, SC] administered once at time 0; injections of carprofen [3 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h] starting at time 0; administration of LEBT plus carprofen; and a control treatment of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Weight load testing and behavioral scoring were conducted at 0, 2, 6, 26, and 30 hours.
Results—Injection of MSU into the intertarsal joint induced arthritis, which resolved within 30 hours. Treatment with LEBT or LEBT plus carprofen resulted in significantly greater weight-bearing load on the limb with induced arthritis, compared with the control treatment. Treatment with carprofen alone caused a slight but nonsignificant improvement in weight-bearing load on the arthritic limb, compared with the control treatment. Behaviors associated with motor activity and weight bearing differed between the control and analgesic treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Butorphanol was an effective treatment for pain associated with arthritis, but carprofen administered every 12 hours was insufficient. Injection of MSU to induce arthritis in a single joint was a good method for evaluating tonic pain in parrots, and measurement of the weight-bearing load was accurate for assessment of arthritic pain; however, behavioral changes associated with pain were subtle.