Case Description—A 7-year-old spayed female Miniature Rex European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was evaluated because of scratching at the right ear. Physical examination revealed purulent exudate in the right ear canal.
Clinical Findings—Microbial culture of the exudate yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to marbofloxacin; however, the infection was refractory to appropriate medical treatment. Computed tomography revealed isoattenuating material within the right tympanic bulla and external ear canal with no enhancement following IV administration of contrast medium. The left tympanic bulla appeared normal.
Treatment and Outcome—A total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy were performed on the right ear, and polymethylmethacrylate beads containing either gentamicin or cefazolin were placed within the bulla and surrounding tissues. Two weeks after surgery, the patient appeared comfortable with no signs of scratching at the right ear.
Clinical Relevance—Total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy can be successfully performed for treatment of chronic otitis externa and media in rabbits. Cartilage plates that compose the external ear canal, a bony acoustic duct, lack of a horizontal ear canal, and thickness of the lateral aspect of the tympanic bulla are features unique to rabbits and have not been described in relation to these surgical procedures in rabbits. Rabbits also produce a caseous exudate, and it is difficult to resolve infections of bone and soft tissues. Placement of antimicrobial-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads is recommended to minimize the risk of recurrent infection.
Objective—To determine the effects of UVB radiation produced by artificial lights on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi).
Animals—9 juvenile domestic rabbits.
Procedures—After an acclimation period, rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and an initial blood sample was collected for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive 12-hour exposure to UVB radiation produced by 2 compact fluorescent lights daily (n = 5) or no UVB supplementation (4) commencing on day 1. The UVB radiation emitted into the cage was measured at 9 points approximately 34 cm from the surface of the UVB light sources (representing the position of the rabbits in the cage) after 10 hours of exposure on days 1, 8, and 14. On day 14, another blood sample was collected from anesthetized rabbits for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration.
Results—The UVB radiation level was 8.3 to 58.1 μW/cm2 for the exposed rabbits and consistently < 0.001 μW/cm2 for the control rabbits. Mean ± SD serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the rabbits that were or were not provided supplemental UVB radiation for 14 days differed significantly (66.4 ± 14.3 nmol/L and 31.7 ± 9.9 nmol/L, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to UVB radiation produced by artificial light significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in juvenile rabbits. Because vitamin D is an essential hormone in vertebrates, these findings suggested that the provision of supplemental UVB radiation to captive rabbits may be important.
To develop a Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) for use in raptors presenting with head trauma and assess the agreement of the MGCS scores between examiners with varying backgrounds, and to assess the prognostic value of the avian MGCS in raptors with head trauma.
156 native raptorial species.
All raptors received an MGCS assessment within 8 hours of their presentation, between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019. For the first objective, the assessment was performed by a veterinary student, a wildlife veterinarian, and a board-certified or resident veterinary neurologist. Each animal received a score in 3 categories (motor activity, level of consciousness, and brain stem reflexes) and an overall score. For the second objective, the MGCS scoring was performed by the intaking clinical team member and survival after 48 hours was documented.
Agreement between the 3 individual scores was assessed via Cronbach α and intraclass correlation. There was excellent-good agreement in all 3 assessment categories as well as the overall score. Univariate associations between survival and demographic factors were determined using the χ2 test. Overall, raptors with a total MGCS of < 10 were less likely to survive than those with a score > 12.
An avian-specific MGCS demonstrated good-excellent agreement among raters of various backgrounds in assessing raptors with head trauma. Additionally, this study showed that an avian-specific MGCS may be correlated with the probability of survival within the first 48 hours after presentation to rehabilitation facilities in raptors with head trauma.