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  • Author or Editor: Julia E. Tomlinson x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether ischemia and flunixin affect in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) absorption in samples of the jejunum of horses.

Animals—12 horses.

Procedure—Horses were anesthetized, a midline celiotomy was performed, and the jejunum was located. Two 30-cm sections of jejunum (60 cm apart) were selected. One segment was designated as control tissue; ischemia was induced in the other segment for 120 minutes. Horses were then euthanatized. Mucosa from each jejunal segment was mounted on Ussing chambers and treated with or without flunixin. Tissues from 6 horses were used to assess permeability to radiolabeled LPS; mucosal samples from the remaining 6 horses were incubated with fluorescent-labeled LPS (FITC-LPS) and examined histologically. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and production of LPS-binding protein (LBP) were assessed as indicators of mucosal response to LPS.

Results—Ischemia significantly increased mucosal permeability to LPS, but by 180 minutes, the mucosa was not more permeable than control tissue. Flunixin treatment adversely affected intestinal barrier function throughout the experiment but did not result in increased mucosal permeability to LPS. Compared with control tissues, LBP production was increased by ischemia and reduced by exposure to LPS. In ischemic tissue, FITC-LPS entered the lamina propria but TNF-α was produced on the mucosal side only, indicating little response to the absorbed LPS.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ischemia increased LPS passage across equine jejunal mucosa. Flunixin delayed mucosal recovery but did not exacerbate LPS absorption. Evaluation of the clinical importance of flunixin-associated delayed mucosal recovery requires further in vivo investigation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1377–1383)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether carpal brace application is a viable treatment for dogs with unilateral carpal ligament instability.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—14 client-owned athletic dogs.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify dogs treated with a brace for unilateral carpal valgus or varus instability between August 2008 and August 2011. Treatment included passive motion and isometric strengthening exercises during brace application.

Results—Of the 14 dogs, 11 were considered to have returned to normal function; 11 of 12 dogs returned to agility competition. Carpal measurements before treatment indicated the affected limb had significantly greater valgus measurements (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°), significantly greater varus measurements (median, 15°; range, 15° to 25°), and significantly less flexion (median, 37.5°; range, 30° to 45°), compared with results for the contralateral carpus. Long-term monitoring revealed no differences in measurements between affected and contralateral limbs. Valgus measurements of the affected carpus at brace removal (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) and at the end of long-term monitoring (median, 15°; range, 15° to 20°) were significantly lower than measurements before treatment (median, 30°; range, 30° to 35°). Dogs had significantly lower lameness scores (assessed on a scale of 0 to 5) at brace removal (median, 0; range, 0) and at the end of monitoring (median, 0; range, 0 to 2), compared with scores before treatment (median, 3; range, 1 to 3).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of a carpal brace resulted in improved stability and resolution or reduction in lameness in dogs with carpal ligament instability.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To map the equine pelvis using ultrasonography, validated by use of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and measurements of frozen cadaver slices.

Animals—6 ponies and 6 horses.

Procedure—Ultrasonographic examination of the pelvis was performed on 6 clinically normal ponies. Measurements were obtained for imaged structures. Computed tomography, MRI, and measurements of frozen sections were performed after death and used to verify measurements. Linear regression determined the degree of correlation between measurements obtained ultrasonographically and the other modalities. Six clinically normal horses were then examined by use of ultrasonography. For each structure measured mean, SD, and range were calculated.

Results—Data obtained from ponies revealed high correlations between ultrasonographic findings and those of CT, MRI, and frozen section measurements (r 2 = 0.97, r 2 = 0.99, and r 2 = 0.99, respectively). Differences between structures measured on each side of the pelvis were not significant. Variation in size of structures was not associated with weight of horses. A correlation was not found between weight of horses and ponies and size of structure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography can be used to accurately measure and evaluate the musculoskeletal structures of the pelvis of horses. The use of CT, MRI, and measurements of frozen sections provided a means of validating the ultrasonographic measurements. Reference range values determined in our study can be used to evaluate horses with suspected pelvic disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1768–1775)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effects of flunixin meglumine and etodolac treatment on recovery of ischemicinjured equine jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of reperfusion.

Animals—24 horses.

Procedure—Jejunum was exposed to 2 hours of ischemia during anesthesia. Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (12 mL, IV, q 12 h), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or etodolac (23 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h). Tissue specimens were obtained from ischemic-injured and nonischemic jejunum immediately after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery from ischemia. Transepithelial electric resistance (TER) and transepithelial flux of tritium-labeled mannitol measured mucosal permeability. Denuded villous surface area and mean epithelial neutrophil count per mm2 were calculated. Western blot analysis for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 was performed. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin and etodolac and eicosanoid concentrations were determined.

Results—Ischemic-injured tissue from horses treated with flunixin and etodolac had significantly lower TER and increased permeability to mannitol, compared with that from horses treated with saline solution. Epithelial denudation after ischemia and 18 hours after recovery was not significantly different among treatments. Both COX-1 and -2 were expressed in ischemic-injured and nonischemic tissues. Ischemia caused significant upregulation of both COX isoforms. Eicosanoid concentrations were significantly lower in tissues from flunixin and etodolac-treated horses, compared with that from horses treated with saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Flunixin and etodolac treatment retarded recovery of intestinal barrier function in jejunal mucosa after 18 hours of reperfusion, whereas tissues from horses treated with saline solution recovered baseline values of TER and permeability to mannitol. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:761–769)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research