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  • Author or Editor: Juhani Leppäluoto x
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Objective—To compare the perioperative stress response in dogs administered medetomidine or acepromazine as part of the preanesthetic medication.

Animals—42 client-owned dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomy.

Procedure—Each dog was randomly allocated to receive medetomidine and butorphanol tartrate (20 µg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively, IM) or acepromazine maleate and butorphanol (0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively, IM) for preanesthetic medication. Approximately 80 minutes later, anesthesia was induced by administration of propofol and maintained by use of isoflurane in oxygen. Each dog was also given carprofen before surgery and buprenorphine after surgery. Plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and β-endorphin were measured at various stages during the perioperative period. In addition, cardiovascular and clinical variables were monitored.

Results—Concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly lower for dogs administered medetomidine. Concentrations of β-endorphin did not differ between the 2 groups. Heart rate was significantly lower and mean arterial blood pressure significantly higher in dogs administered medetomidine, compared with values for dogs administered acepromazine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that for preanesthetic medications, medetomidine may offer some advantages over acepromazine with respect to the ability to decrease perioperative concentrations of stress-related hormones. In particular, the ability to provide stable plasma catecholamine concentrations may help to attenuate perioperative activation of the sympathetic nervous system. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:969–975)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify variables and evaluate methods for assessing chronic pain in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—41 dogs with canine hip dysplasia (CHD), and 24 apparently healthy dogs with no history of pain.

Procedure—2 veterinarians evaluated the dogs' locomotion and signs of pain. Owners of dogs with CHD and control dogs answered a questionnaire regarding their dogs' demeanor, behavior, and locomotion (descriptive scales) and assessed pain and locomotion (visual analog scales). Plasma concentrations of several stress-related hormones were determined, and 13 radiologic variables were assessed in affected hip joints.

Results—For many of the questions, answers provided by owners of dogs with CHD differed significantly from those of owners of control dogs. Stress hormone concentrations differed significantly between dogs with CHD and controls, but individual variation was too great for them to be of value in pain assessment. None of the radiologic variables examined correlated well with owner or veterinarian pain scores.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chronic pain could be assessed in dogs with CHD through completion of the study questionnaire by a person familiar with the pet (eg, owner) after receiving appropriate education in its use. Eleven variables were identified as being potentially useful in assessment of chronic pain in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222: 1552–1558)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association