Objective—To investigate the effects of oral administration of activated charcoal (AC) and urine alkalinization via oral administration of sodium bicarbonate on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered carprofen in dogs.
Animals—6 neutered male Beagles.
Procedures—Each dog underwent 3 experiments (6-week interval between experiments). The dogs received a single dose of carprofen (16 mg/kg) orally at the beginning of each experiment; after 30 minutes, sodium bicarbonate (40 mg/kg, PO), AC solution (2.5 g/kg, PO), or no other treatments were administered. Plasma concentrations of unchanged carprofen were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography at intervals until 48 hours after carprofen administration. Data were analyzed by use of a Student paired t test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank test.
Results—Compared with the control treatment, administration of AC decreased plasma carprofen concentrations (mean ± SD maximum concentration was 85.9 ± 11.9 mg/L and 58.1 ± 17.6 mg/L, and area under the time-concentration curve was 960 ± 233 mg/L•h and 373 ± 133 mg/L•h after control and AC treatment, respectively). The elimination half-life remained constant. Administration of sodium bicarbonate had no effect on plasma drug concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After oral administration of carprofen in dogs, administration of AC effectively decreased maximum plasma carprofen concentration, compared with the control treatment, probably by decreasing carprofen absorption. Results suggest that AC can be used to reduce systemic carprofen absorption in dogs receiving an overdose of carprofen. Oral administration of 1 dose of sodium bicarbonate had no apparent impact on carprofen kinetics in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of each of 3 incremental doses of MK-467 for alleviation of dexmedetomidine-induced hemodynamic depression in isoflurane-anesthetized cats.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats.
PROCEDURES Each cat was anesthetized with isoflurane and received a target-controlled infusion of dexmedetomidine estimated to maintain the plasma dexmedetomidine concentration at 10 ng/mL throughout the experiment. Heart rate (HR) and direct arterial pressures were measured at baseline (isoflurane administration only), during dexmedetomidine infusion, and before and after IV administration of each of 3 serially increasing doses (15, 30, and 60 μg/kg) of MK-467. Cardiac index (CI) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were recorded at baseline, during dexmedetomidine infusion, and at the mean arterial pressure nadir after administration of the 30- and 60-μg/kg doses of MK-467.
RESULTS Compared with baseline values, the dexmedetomidine infusion significantly decreased HR and increased arterial pressures. Each dose of MK-467 caused a significant decrease in arterial pressures and a significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, increase in HR (≤ 10%). Following administration of the 30- and 60-μg/kg doses of MK-467, all cats developed clinical hypotension (mean arterial pressure, < 60 mm Hg) even though CI and SVR returned to baseline values.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated administration of small doses of MK-467 to isoflurane-anesthetized cats receiving dexmedetomidine restored CI and SVR, but caused a substantial decrease in arterial pressures and only a marginal increase in HR. Therefore, caution should be used when MK-467 is administered to alleviate dexmedetomidine-induced hemodynamic depression in isoflurane-anesthetized cats.
Objective—To assess bioequivalence after oral, IM, and IV administration of racemic ketoprofen in pigs and to investigate the bioavailability after oral and IM administration.
Animals—8 crossbred pigs.
Procedures—Each pig received 4 treatments in a randomized crossover design, with a 6-day washout period. Ketoprofen was administered at 3 and 6 mg/kg, PO; 3 mg/kg, IM; and 3 mg/kg, IV. Plasma ketoprofen concentrations were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography for up to 48 hours. To assess bioequivalence, a 90% confidence interval was calculated for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax).
Results—Equivalence was not detected in the AUCs among the various routes of administration nor in Cmax between oral and IM administration of 3 mg/kg. The bioavailability of ketoprofen was almost complete after each oral or IM administration. Mean ± SD Cmax was 5.09 ± 1.41 μg/mL and 7.62 ± 1.22 μg/mL after oral and IM doses of 3 mg/kg, respectively. Mean elimination half-life varied from 3.52 ± 0.90 hours after oral administration of 3 mg/kg to 2.66 ± 0.50 hours after IV administration. Time to peak Cmax after administration of all treatments was approximately 1 hour. Increases in AUC and Cmax were proportional when the orally administered dose was increased from 3 to 6 mg/kg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered ketoprofen was absorbed well in pigs, although bioequivalence with IM administration of ketoprofen was not detected. Orally administered ketoprofen may have potential for use in treating pigs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of the peripherally acting α2-adrenoceptor antagonist MK-467 on cardiopulmonary function in sheep sedated with medetomidine and ketamine.
ANIMALS 9 healthy adult female sheep.
PROCEDURES Each animal received an IM injection of a combination of medetomidine (30 μg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg; Med-Ket) alone and Med-Ket and 3 doses of MK-467 (150, 300, and 600 μg/kg) in a randomized blinded 4-way crossover study. Atipamezole (150 μg/kg, IM) was administered 60 minutes later to reverse sedation. Cardiopulmonary variables and sedation scores were recorded, and drug concentrations in plasma were analyzed. Data were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANCOVA and 1-way ANOVA. Reference limits for the equivalence of sedation scores were set at 0.8 and 1.25.
RESULTS Heart rate, cardiac output, and Pao2 decreased and mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, and systemic vascular resistance increased after Med-Ket alone. Administration of MK-467 significantly alleviated these effects, except for the decrease in cardiac output. After sedation was reversed with atipamezole, no significant differences were detected in cardiopulmonary variables among the treatments. Administration of MK-467 did not significantly alter plasma concentrations of medetomidine, ketamine, norketamine, or atipamezole. Sedation as determined on the basis of overall sedation scores was similar among treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Concurrent administration of MK-467 alleviated cardiopulmonary effects in sheep sedated with Med-Ket without affecting sedation or reversal with atipamezole.
To determine whether concurrent vatinoxan administration affects the antinociceptive efficacy of medetomidine in dogs at doses that provide circulating dexmedetomidine concentrations similar to those produced by medetomidine alone.
8 healthy Beagles.
Dogs received 3 IV treatments in a randomized crossover-design trial with a 2-week washout period between experiments (medetomidine [20 μg/kg], medetomidine [20 μg/kg] and vatinoxan [400 μg/kg], and medetomidine [40 μg/kg] and vatinoxan [800 μg/kg]; M20, M20V400, and M40V800, respectively). Sedation, visceral and somatic nociception, and plasma drug concentrations were assessed. Somatic and visceral nociception measurements and sedation scores were compared among treatments and over time. Sedation, visceral antinociception, and somatic antinociception effects of M20V400 and M40V800 were analyzed for noninferiority to effects of M20, and plasma drug concentration data were assessed for equivalence between treatments.
Plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations after administration of M20 and M40V800 were equivalent. Sedation scores, visceral nociception measurements, and somatic nociception measurements did not differ significantly among treatments within time points. Overall sedative effects of M20V400 and M40V800 and visceral antinociceptive effects of M40V800 were noninferior to those produced by M20. Somatic antinociception effects of M20V400 at 10 minutes and M40V800 at 10 and 55 minutes after injection were noninferior to those produced by M20.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested coadministration with vatinoxan did not substantially diminish visceral antinociceptive effects of medetomidine when plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were equivalent to those produced by medetomidine alone. For somatic antinociception, noninferiority of treatments was detected at some time points.
Objective—To evaluate early indicators of renal tissue destruction and changes in urinary enzyme activities in sheep during the first hours after acute kidney injury induced by administration of an overdose of an NSAID.
Animals—12 adult female sheep.
Procedures—Acute kidney injury was induced in 6 sheep by administration of ketoprofen (30 mg/kg, IV) and detected by evaluation of urinary protein concentration, iohexol clearance, and results of histologic examination. Six sheep served as control animals. Blood and urine samples were collected for up to 24 hours after administration of ketoprofen. Plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, albumin, and total protein; plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9; and urinary creatinine and protein concentrations, specific gravity, and activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, GGT lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured. Urinary protein concentration and enzyme activities were normalized on the basis of urinary creatinine concentrations and reported as ratios.
Results—Many urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios increased before the plasma creatinine concentration exceeded the reference value. Urine NAG, lactate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase activities were increased beginning at 2 hours after ketoprofen administration, and alkaline phosphatase, GGT, and MMP-2 activities were increased beginning at 4 hours after ketoprofen administration. Most peak urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios were detected earlier than were the highest plasma creatinine and urea concentrations.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urinary enzyme activities were sensitive early indicators of acute kidney injury induced by an overdose of an NSAID in sheep. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1246–1252)
To investigate the cardiovascular and sedation reversal effects of IM administration of atipamezole (AA) in dogs treated with medetomidine hydrochloride (MED) or MED and vatinoxan (MK-467).
8 purpose-bred, 2-year-old Beagles.
A randomized, blinded, crossover study was performed in which each dog received 2 IM treatments at a ≥ 2-week interval as follows: injection of MED (20 μg/kg) or MED mixed with 400 μg of vatinoxan/kg (MEDVAT) 30 minutes before AA (100 μg/kg). Sedation score, heart rate, mean arterial and central venous blood pressures, and cardiac output were recorded before and at various time points (up to 90 minutes) after AA. Cardiac and systemic vascular resistance indices were calculated. Venous blood samples were collected at intervals until 210 minutes after AA for drug concentration analysis.
Heart rate following MED administration was lower, compared with findings after MEDVAT administration, prior to and at ≥ 10 minutes after AA. Mean arterial blood pressure was lower with MEDVAT than with MED at 5 minutes after AA, when its nadir was detected. Overall, cardiac index was higher and systemic vascular resistance index lower, indicating better cardiovascular function, in MEDVAT-atipamezole–treated dogs. Plasma dexmedetomidine concentrations were lower and recoveries from sedation were faster and more complete after MEDVAT treatment with AA than after MED treatment with AA.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Atipamezole failed to restore heart rate and cardiac index in medetomidine-sedated dogs, and relapses into sedation were observed. Coadministration of vatinoxan with MED helped to maintain hemodynamic function and hastened the recovery from sedation after AA in dogs.