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  • Author or Editor: Judith Bertran x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To utilize the geometry of superficial anatomic landmarks to guide incisional location and orientation for peripheral lymphadenectomy, document deep anatomic landmarks for lymphocentrum identification, and develop novel surgical approaches to the superficial cervical, axillary, and superficial inguinal lymphocentrums in dogs.


12 canine cadavers.


2 cadavers were used for a pilot investigation to determine optimal body positioning, select superficial anatomic landmarks for lymphocentrum identification, and evaluate novel surgical approaches to the 3 lymphocentrums. These lymphocentrums were then dissected in 10 additional cadavers using these novel surgical approaches. Measurements of the distances from lymphocentrum to landmark and between landmarks were obtained for each lymphocentrum. Deep anatomic landmarks were recorded for each dissection. The mean and SD were calculated for each measurement and used to develop geometric guidelines for estimating the location of each lymphocentrum for these surgical approaches.


Each peripheral lymphocentrum was found in the same location relative to the respective, predetermined, superficial, anatomic boundaries in all cadavers. Briefly, the superficial landmarks to each lymphocentrum were as follows: (1) superficial cervical: wing of atlas, acromion process of scapula, greater tubercle of humerus; (2) axillary: caudal border of transverse head of superficial pectoral muscle, caudal triceps muscle, ventral midline; and (3) superficial inguinal: origin of pectineus muscle, ipsilateral inguinal mammary gland, ventral midline. The proposed superficial and deep surgical landmarks were identified within every cadaver. The previously undescribed surgical approaches were effective for lymphocentrum identification.


Anatomic landmarks provided in this study may help reduce surgical time and tissue trauma during peripheral lymphadenectomy in dogs. This study was also the first to describe a surgical approach to the superficial inguinal lymphocentrum and ventral approaches to the superficial cervical and axillary lymphocentrums and provided previously unpublished anatomic landmarks for a lateral approach to the superficial cervical lymphocentrum.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association