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- Author or Editor: Juan J. García Vieitez x
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Objective—To determine the tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders by measuring its concentration at various sample collection sites.
Sample—26 udders (obtained following euthanasia) from 26 healthy lactating sheep.
Procedures—For each isolated udder, 1 mammary gland was perfused with warmed, gassed Tyrode solution. Enrofloxacin (1 g of enrofloxacin/5 g of ointment) was administered into the perfused gland via the intramammary route or systemically via the perfusion fluid (equivalent to a dose of 5 mg/kg). Samples of the perfusate were obtained every 30 minutes for 180 minutes; glandular tissue samples were obtained at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base after 180 minutes. The enrofloxacin content of the perfusate and tissue samples was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.
Results—After intramammary administration, maximun perfusate enrofloxacin concentration was detected at 180 minutes and, at this time, mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was detected and mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was 123.80, 54.48, 36.72, and 26.42 μg/g of tissue at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base, respectively. Following systemic administration, perfusate enrofloxacin concentration decreased with time and, at 180 minutes, tissue enrofloxacin concentrations ranged from 40.38 to 35.58 μg/g of tissue.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By 180 minutes after administration via the intramammary or systemic route in isolated perfused sheep mammary glands, mean tissue concentration of enrofloxacin was greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit growth of 90% of many common mastitis pathogens in sheep. Use of either route of administration (or in combination) appears suitable for the treatment of acute mastitis in sheep.
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of a commercial formulation of doxycycline hyclate after IM administration of a single dose to sheep.
Animals—11 healthy domestic sheep.
Procedures—For each sheep, doxycycline was administered as a single dose of 20 mg/kg, IM. Blood samples were obtained prior to and for 84 hours after doxycycline administration. Plasma concentrations of doxycycline were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed with noncompartmental methods.
Results—Mean ± SD values for pharmacokinetic parameters included maximum plasma concentration (2.792 ± 0.791 μg/mL), time to reach maximum plasma concentration (0.856 ± 0.472 hours), mean residence time (91.1 ± 40.78 hours), elimination half-life (77.88 ± 28.45 hours), and area under the curve (65.67 ± 9.877 μg•h/mL).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that doxycycline had prolonged absorption and elimination in sheep after IM administration. A daily dose of 20 mg/kg would be sufficient to reach effective plasma concentrations against Chlamydia spp (minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.008 to 0.031 μg/mL) and Staphylococcus aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.12 μg/mL). Doxycycline administered IM could be an option for therapeutic use in sheep, although further studies are needed.