PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined for each bird by use of the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV. Arterial (red-tailed hawks) or jugular venous (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) blood samples were obtained immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 480 minutes (red-tailed hawks) and 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) after fentanyl administration.
RESULTS A 3-compartment and a 2-compartment model best described fentanyl pharmacokinetics in red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, respectively. Median apparent volume of the central compartment and volume of distribution at steady state were 222 mL/kg and 987 mL/kg, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 5,108 mL/kg and 13,079 mL/kg, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Median clearance and elimination half-life were 8.9 mL/min/kg and 90.22 minutes, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 198.8 mL/min/kg and 51.18 minutes, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetic results for fentanyl in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots indicated large differences and should strongly discourage extrapolation of doses between these 2 species.