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  • Author or Editor: Juan C. Pavez x
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Objective—To determine the quality and speed of recovery from anesthesia with isoflurane, sevoflurane, or desflurane and determine end-tidal inhalant concentration at certain events during recovery in healthy dogs.

Animals—11 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV), and dogs were assigned by use of a crossover design to receive isoflurane at 2.0%, sevoflurane at 3.2%, or desflurane at 11% end-tidal concentrations. Direct blood pressure was monitored throughout the 120 minutes of anesthesia. At the end of anesthesia, the circuit was flushed with oxygen, and the time to specific events in recovery and overall quality of recovery were assessed. Blood gas concentrations were measured prior to anesthesia and after recovery.

Results—Dogs in the desflurane group had the shortest time to standing (11.7 ± 5.1 minutes), followed by dogs in the sevoflurane group (18.6 ± 7.5 minutes) and dogs in the isoflurane group (26.3 ± 7.2 minutes). There was no difference for recovery quality among groups. Arterial blood pressure was higher in the sevoflurane group than in the desflurane group at 10 and 15 minutes and in the isoflurane group at 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 105, and 120 minutes. There were no significant differences among groups with respect to blood gas concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs for which a short interval to standing is desired, desflurane is the best selection, followed by sevoflurane.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To compare the disposition of fentanyl citrate after a single IV injection in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks and 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined for each bird by use of the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV. Arterial (red-tailed hawks) or jugular venous (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) blood samples were obtained immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 480 minutes (red-tailed hawks) and 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) after fentanyl administration.

RESULTS A 3-compartment and a 2-compartment model best described fentanyl pharmacokinetics in red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, respectively. Median apparent volume of the central compartment and volume of distribution at steady state were 222 mL/kg and 987 mL/kg, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 5,108 mL/kg and 13,079 mL/kg, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Median clearance and elimination half-life were 8.9 mL/min/kg and 90.22 minutes, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 198.8 mL/min/kg and 51.18 minutes, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetic results for fentanyl in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots indicated large differences and should strongly discourage extrapolation of doses between these 2 species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research