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CASE DESCRIPTION A 20-year-old female south-central black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) was evaluated because of an acute onset of CNS deficits.

CLINICAL FINDINGS The rhinoceros had no history of illness. Clinical signs included acute lethargy, ataxia, and decreased appetite. Hematologic abnormalities included leukocytosis with neutrophilia and a profound left shift. Results of serum biochemical analysis revealed hypophosphatemia but no other abnormalities. Results of a quantitative PCR assay for West Nile virus and an assay for anti–Neosporum caninum antibodies in serum were negative; the patient was seropositive for multiple Leptospira serovars.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory agents were administered, but the condition of the rhinoceros worsened overnight; despite treatment with additional anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents, IV fluids, and thiamine, it became obtunded and died of respiratory arrest ≤ 24 hours later. Necropsy revealed severe, diffuse, suppurative, and histiocytic meningo-encephalomyelitis involving the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Amebic trophozoites were observed on histologic examination of affected tissue. Infection with Naegleria fowleri was confirmed by results of immuno-histochemical analysis and a multiplex real-time PCR assay.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that south-central black rhinoceros are susceptible to the free-living ameba N fowleri. Ameba-induced meningoencephalomyelitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rhinoceros that have an acute onset of neurologic signs. Diagnosis of N fowleri infection in an animal has a profound public health impact because of potential human exposure from the environment and the high fatality rate in people with N fowleri infection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.


10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.


A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.


SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.


This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association